Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 316 (5827): 1033-1036

Copyright © 2007 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Hd3a Protein Is a Mobile Flowering Signal in Rice

Shojiro Tamaki, Shoichi Matsuo, Hann Ling Wong, Shuji Yokoi,* Ko Shimamoto{dagger}

Abstract: Florigen, the mobile signal that moves from an induced leaf to the shoot apex and causes flowering, has eluded identification since it was first proposed 70 years ago. Understanding the nature of the mobile flowering signal would provide a key insight into the molecular mechanism of floral induction. Recent studies suggest that the Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is a candidate for encoding florigen. We show that the protein encoded by Hd3a, a rice ortholog of FT, moves from the leaf to the shoot apical meristem and induces flowering in rice. These results suggest that the Hd3a protein may be the rice florigen.

Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma 630-0101, Japan.

* Present address: Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550, Japan.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: simamoto{at}

RAV genes: regulation of floral induction and beyond.
L. Matias-Hernandez, A. E. Aguilar-Jaramillo, E. Marin-Gonzalez, P. Suarez-Lopez, and S. Pelaz (2014)
Ann. Bot.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Understanding and manipulating sucrose phloem loading, unloading, metabolism, and signalling to enhance crop yield and food security.
D. M. Braun, L. Wang, and Y.-L. Ruan (2014)
J. Exp. Bot. 65, 1713-1735
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The embryonic shoot: a lifeline through winter.
C. van der Schoot, L. K. Paul, and P. L. H. Rinne (2014)
J. Exp. Bot. 65, 1699-1712
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcription factor-mediated cell-to-cell signalling in plants.
X. Han, D. Kumar, H. Chen, S. Wu, and J.-Y. Kim (2014)
J. Exp. Bot. 65, 1737-1749
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The angiosperm phloem sieve tube system: a role in mediating traits important to modern agriculture.
B.-K. Ham and W. J. Lucas (2014)
J. Exp. Bot. 65, 1799-1816
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular control of seasonal flowering in rice, arabidopsis and temperate cereals.
R. Shrestha, J. Gomez-Ariza, V. Brambilla, and F. Fornara (2014)
Ann. Bot.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A tribute to Ko Shimamoto (1949-2013).
P. Suarez-Lopez, H. Tsuji, and G. Coupland (2014)
J. Exp. Bot.
   Full Text »    PDF »
A Distal CCAAT/NUCLEAR FACTOR Y Complex Promotes Chromatin Looping at the FLOWERING LOCUS T Promoter and Regulates the Timing of Flowering in Arabidopsis.
S. Cao, R. W. Kumimoto, N. Gnesutta, A. M. Calogero, R. Mantovani, and B. F. Holt III (2014)
PLANT CELL 26, 1009-1017
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Trithorax Group Protein Oryza sativa Trithorax1 Controls Flowering Time in Rice via Interaction with Early heading date3.
S. C. Choi, S. Lee, S.-R. Kim, Y.-S. Lee, C. Liu, X. Cao, and G. An (2014)
Plant Physiology 164, 1326-1337
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Structural Features Determining Flower-Promoting Activity of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T.
W. W. H. Ho and D. Weigel (2014)
PLANT CELL 26, 552-564
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interaction of Photoperiod and Vernalization Determines Flowering Time of Brachypodium distachyon.
T. S. Ream, D. P. Woods, C. J. Schwartz, C. P. Sanabria, J. A. Mahoy, E. M. Walters, H. F. Kaeppler, and R. M. Amasino (2014)
Plant Physiology 164, 694-709
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The regulation of seasonal flowering in the Rosaceae.
T. Kurokura, N. Mimida, N. H. Battey, and T. Hytonen (2013)
J. Exp. Bot. 64, 4131-4141
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phloem transport: a review of mechanisms and controls.
V. De Schepper, T. De Swaef, I. Bauweraerts, and K. Steppe (2013)
J. Exp. Bot. 64, 4839-4850
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T by a MicroRNA in Brachypodium distachyon.
L. Wu, D. Liu, J. Wu, R. Zhang, Z. Qin, D. Liu, A. Li, D. Fu, W. Zhai, and L. Mao (2013)
PLANT CELL 25, 4363-4377
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Exogenous Gibberellins Induce Wheat Spike Development under Short Days Only in the Presence of VERNALIZATION1.
S. Pearce, L. S. Vanzetti, and J. Dubcovsky (2013)
Plant Physiology 163, 1433-1445
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Fragaria vesca Homolog of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 Represses Flowering and Promotes Vegetative Growth.
K. Mouhu, T. Kurokura, E. A. Koskela, V. A. Albert, P. Elomaa, and T. Hytonen (2013)
PLANT CELL 25, 3296-3310
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in a Diverse, Representative Collection of the C4 Model Plant, Sorghum bicolor.
Y.-H. Wang, H. D. Upadhyaya, A. M. Burrell, S. M. E. Sahraeian, R. R. Klein, and P. E. Klein (2013)
g3 3, 783-793
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Changes in CsFT Transcript Abundance at the Onset of Low-temperature Floral Induction in Sweet Orange.
E. J. Chica and L. G. Albrigo (2013)
J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 138, 184-189
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Coincidence of Critical Day Length Recognition for Florigen Gene Expression and Floral Transition under Long-Day Conditions in Rice.
H. Itoh and T. Izawa (2013)
Mol Plant 6, 635-649
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
BRANCHED1 Interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T to Repress the Floral Transition of the Axillary Meristems in Arabidopsis.
M. Niwa, Y. Daimon, K.-i. Kurotani, A. Higo, J. L. Pruneda-Paz, G. Breton, N. Mitsuda, S. A. Kay, M. Ohme-Takagi, M. Endo, et al. (2013)
PLANT CELL 25, 1228-1242
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Application of an Analog of 9, 10-ketol-octadecadienoic acid (KODA), Affected Flower Bud Formation and MdTFL1 and MdFT1 Gene Expressions in Apple Buds under Heavy-crop and Shade Conditions.
M. Kittikorn, K. Okawa, H. Ohara, S. Kondo, N. Kotoda, M. Wada, M. Yokoyama, O. Ifuku, A. Murata, and N. Watanabe (2013)
J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 138, 102-107
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
LC2 and OsVIL2 Promote Rice Flowering by Photoperoid-Induced Epigenetic Silencing of OsLF.
J. Wang, J. Hu, Q. Qian, and H.-W. Xue (2013)
Mol Plant 6, 514-527
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interlocking Feedback Loops Govern the Dynamic Behavior of the Floral Transition in Arabidopsis.
K. E. Jaeger, N. Pullen, S. Lamzin, R. J. Morris, and P. A. Wigge (2013)
PLANT CELL 25, 820-833
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Florigen Genes FT and TSF Modulate Lateral Shoot Outgrowth in Arabidopsis thaliana.
K. Hiraoka, A. Yamaguchi, M. Abe, and T. Araki (2013)
Plant Cell Physiol. 54, 352-368
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Grass Meristems I: Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance, Axillary Meristem Determinacy and the Floral Transition.
M. Pautler, W. Tanaka, H.-Y. Hirano, and D. Jackson (2013)
Plant Cell Physiol. 54, 302-312
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functional Diversification of FD Transcription Factors in Rice, Components of Florigen Activation Complexes.
H. Tsuji, H. Nakamura, K.-i. Taoka, and K. Shimamoto (2013)
Plant Cell Physiol. 54, 385-397
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of Flowering by Trehalose-6-Phosphate Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.
V. Wahl, J. Ponnu, A. Schlereth, S. Arrivault, T. Langenecker, A. Franke, R. Feil, J. E. Lunn, M. Stitt, and M. Schmid (2013)
Science 339, 704-707
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic Control and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Flowering Time in Setaria (Poaceae).
M. Mauro-Herrera, X. Wang, H. Barbier, T. P. Brutnell, K. M. Devos, and A. N. Doust (2013)
g3 3, 283-295
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Flowering retardation by high temperature in chrysanthemums: involvement of FLOWERING LOCUS T-like 3 gene repression.
Y. Nakano, Y. Higuchi, K. Sumitomo, and T. Hisamatsu (2013)
J. Exp. Bot. 64, 909-920
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
FT-Like NFT1 Gene May Play a Role in Flower Transition Induced by Heat Accumulation in Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis.
X.-F. Li, L.-Y. Jia, J. Xu, X.-J. Deng, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X.-P. Zhang, Q. Fang, D.-M. Zhang, Y. Sun, et al. (2013)
Plant Cell Physiol. 54, 270-281
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interacting duplications, fluctuating selection, and convergence: the complex dynamics of flowering time evolution during sunflower domestication.
B. K. Blackman (2013)
J. Exp. Bot. 64, 421-431
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Cotyledons Produce Sufficient FT Protein to Induce Flowering: Evidence from Cotyledon Micrografting in Arabidopsis.
S. J. Yoo, S. M. Hong, H. S. Jung, and J. H. Ahn (2013)
Plant Cell Physiol. 54, 119-128
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Promiscuous Life of Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y Transcription Factors.
K. Petroni, R. W. Kumimoto, N. Gnesutta, V. Calvenzani, M. Fornari, C. Tonelli, B. F. Holt III, and R. Mantovani (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 4777-4792
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Heterosis: emerging ideas about hybrid vigour.
V. K. Baranwal, V. Mikkilineni, U. B. Zehr, A. K. Tyagi, and S. Kapoor (2012)
J. Exp. Bot. 63, 6309-6314
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Spatial control of flowering by DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.
V. C. Galvao, D. Horrer, F. Kuttner, and M. Schmid (2012)
Development 139, 4072-4082
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcript and metabolite signature of maize source leaves suggests a link between transitory starch to sucrose balance and the autonomous floral transition.
V. Coneva, D. Guevara, S. J. Rothstein, and J. Colasanti (2012)
J. Exp. Bot. 63, 5079-5092
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Positional cloning and characterization reveal the molecular basis for soybean maturity locus E1 that regulates photoperiodic flowering.
Z. Xia, S. Watanabe, T. Yamada, Y. Tsubokura, H. Nakashima, H. Zhai, T. Anai, S. Sato, T. Yamazaki, S. Lu, et al. (2012)
PNAS 109, E2155-E2164
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CaJOINTLESS is a MADS-box gene involved in suppression of vegetative growth in all shoot meristems in pepper.
O. Cohen, Y. Borovsky, R. David-Schwartz, and I. Paran (2012)
J. Exp. Bot.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Phytochrome-Interacting VASCULAR PLANT ONE-ZINC FINGER1 and VOZ2 Redundantly Regulate Flowering in Arabidopsis.
Y. Yasui, K. Mukougawa, M. Uemoto, A. Yokofuji, R. Suzuri, A. Nishitani, and T. Kohchi (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 3248-3263
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Histone Methyltransferase SDG724 Mediates H3K36me2/3 Deposition at MADS50 and RFT1 and Promotes Flowering in Rice.
C. Sun, J. Fang, T. Zhao, B. Xu, F. Zhang, L. Liu, J. Tang, G. Zhang, X. Deng, F. Chen, et al. (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 3235-3247
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 Reverses the Photoperiodic Requirement for Flowering in the Wild Strawberry Fragaria vesca.
E. A. Koskela, K. Mouhu, M. C. Albani, T. Kurokura, M. Rantanen, D. J. Sargent, N. H. Battey, G. Coupland, P. Elomaa, and T. Hytonen (2012)
Plant Physiology 159, 1043-1054
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of lipids and lipid-binding proteins in phloem exudates from Arabidopsis thaliana.
B. S. Guelette, U. F. Benning, and S. Hoffmann-Benning (2012)
J. Exp. Bot. 63, 3603-3616
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
From Bench to Bountiful Harvests: A Road Map for the Next Decade of Arabidopsis Research.
I. Lavagi, M. Estelle, W. Weckwerth, J. Beynon, and R. M. Bastow (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 2240-2247
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inflorescence Meristem Identity in Rice Is Specified by Overlapping Functions of Three AP1/FUL-Like MADS Box Genes and PAP2, a SEPALLATA MADS Box Gene.
K. Kobayashi, N. Yasuno, Y. Sato, M. Yoda, R. Yamazaki, M. Kimizu, H. Yoshida, Y. Nagamura, and J. Kyozuka (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 1848-1859
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ef7 Encodes an ELF3-like Protein and Promotes Rice Flowering by Negatively Regulating the Floral Repressor Gene Ghd7 under Both Short- and Long-Day Conditions.
H. Saito, E. Ogiso-Tanaka, Y. Okumoto, Y. Yoshitake, H. Izumi, T. Yokoo, K. Matsubara, K. Hori, M. Yano, H. Inoue, et al. (2012)
Plant Cell Physiol. 53, 717-728
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CsFTL3, a chrysanthemum FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, is a key regulator of photoperiodic flowering in chrysanthemums.
A. Oda, T. Narumi, T. Li, T. Kando, Y. Higuchi, K. Sumitomo, S. Fukai, and T. Hisamatsu (2012)
J. Exp. Bot. 63, 1461-1477
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Analysis of the Arabidopsis Shoot Meristem Transcriptome during Floral Transition Identifies Distinct Regulatory Patterns and a Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein That Promotes Flowering.
S. Torti, F. Fornara, C. Vincent, F. Andres, K. Nordstrom, U. Gobel, D. Knoll, H. Schoof, and G. Coupland (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 444-462
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Molecular Basis of Vernalization in Different Plant Groups.
T. S. Ream, D. P. Woods, and R. M. Amasino (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 77, 105-115
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic and Epigenetic Effects of Plant-Pathogen Interactions: An Evolutionary Perspective.
A. Boyko and I. Kovalchuk (2011)
Mol Plant 4, 1014-1023
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular Dissection of the Roles of Phytochrome in Photoperiodic Flowering in Rice.
A. Osugi, H. Itoh, K. Ikeda-Kawakatsu, M. Takano, and T. Izawa (2011)
Plant Physiology 157, 1128-1137
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Flower development in rice.
H. Yoshida and Y. Nagato (2011)
J. Exp. Bot. 62, 4719-4730
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ZCN8 encodes a potential orthologue of Arabidopsis FT florigen that integrates both endogenous and photoperiod flowering signals in maize.
C. M. Lazakis, V. Coneva, and J. Colasanti (2011)
J. Exp. Bot. 62, 4833-4842
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Wheat Homolog of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 Acts in the Regulation of Germination.
S. Nakamura, F. Abe, H. Kawahigashi, K. Nakazono, A. Tagiri, T. Matsumoto, S. Utsugi, T. Ogawa, H. Handa, H. Ishida, et al. (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 3215-3229
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Research on Orchid Biology and Biotechnology.
Y.-Y. Hsiao, Z.-J. Pan, C.-C. Hsu, Y.-P. Yang, Y.-C. Hsu, Y.-C. Chuang, H.-H. Shih, W.-H. Chen, W.-C. Tsai, and H.-H. Chen (2011)
Plant Cell Physiol. 52, 1467-1486
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER1 Is Involved in the Regulation of Flowering Time and Inflorescence Development through Transcriptional Repression.
S. Hanano and K. Goto (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 3172-3184
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Long-distance regulation of flowering time.
C. Turnbull (2011)
J. Exp. Bot. 62, 4399-4413
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evolution of the PEBP Gene Family in Plants: Functional Diversification in Seed Plant Evolution.
A. Karlgren, N. Gyllenstrand, T. Kallman, J. F. Sundstrom, D. Moore, M. Lascoux, and U. Lagercrantz (2011)
Plant Physiology 156, 1967-1977
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Gentian Orthologs of the FT/TFL1 Gene Family Control Floral Initiation in Gentiana.
T. Imamura, T. Nakatsuka, A. Higuchi, M. Nishihara, and H. Takahashi (2011)
Plant Cell Physiol. 52, 1031-1041
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The COP1 Ortholog PPS Regulates the Juvenile-Adult and Vegetative-Reproductive Phase Changes in Rice.
N. Tanaka, H. Itoh, N. Sentoku, M. Kojima, H. Sakakibara, T. Izawa, J.-I. Itoh, and Y. Nagato (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 2143-2154
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Flowering Time Genes Heading date 1 and Early heading date 1 Together Control Panicle Development in Rice.
N. Endo-Higashi and T. Izawa (2011)
Plant Cell Physiol. 52, 1083-1094
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CONSTANS and the evolutionary origin of photoperiodic timing of flowering.
F. Valverde (2011)
J. Exp. Bot. 62, 2453-2463
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Os-GIGANTEA Confers Robust Diurnal Rhythms on the Global Transcriptome of Rice in the Field.
T. Izawa, M. Mihara, Y. Suzuki, M. Gupta, H. Itoh, A. J. Nagano, R. Motoyama, Y. Sawada, M. Yano, M. Y. Hirai, et al. (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 1741-1755
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The FT-Like ZCN8 Gene Functions as a Floral Activator and Is Involved in Photoperiod Sensitivity in Maize.
X. Meng, M. G. Muszynski, and O. N. Danilevskaya (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 942-960
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Allelic Variation in the Perennial Ryegrass FLOWERING LOCUS T Gene Is Associated with Changes in Flowering Time across a Range of Populations.
L. Skot, R. Sanderson, A. Thomas, K. Skot, D. Thorogood, G. Latypova, T. Asp, and I. Armstead (2011)
Plant Physiology 155, 1013-1022
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Pea GIGAS Gene Is a FLOWERING LOCUS T Homolog Necessary for Graft-Transmissible Specification of Flowering but Not for Responsiveness to Photoperiod.
V. Hecht, R. E. Laurie, J. K. Vander Schoor, S. Ridge, C. L. Knowles, L. C. Liew, F. C. Sussmilch, I. C. Murfet, R. C. Macknight, and J. L. Weller (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 147-161
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chilling of Dormant Buds Hyperinduces FLOWERING LOCUS T and Recruits GA-Inducible 1,3-{beta}-Glucanases to Reopen Signal Conduits and Release Dormancy in Populus.
P. L. H. Rinne, A. Welling, J. Vahala, L. Ripel, R. Ruonala, J. Kangasjarvi, and C. van der Schoot (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 130-146
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Contributions of Flowering Time Genes to Sunflower Domestication and Improvement.
B. K. Blackman, D. A. Rasmussen, J. L. Strasburg, A. R. Raduski, J. M. Burke, S. J. Knapp, S. D. Michaels, and L. H. Rieseberg (2011)
Genetics 187, 271-287
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Two Coordinately Regulated Homologs of FLOWERING LOCUS T Are Involved in the Control of Photoperiodic Flowering in Soybean.
F. Kong, B. Liu, Z. Xia, S. Sato, B. M. Kim, S. Watanabe, T. Yamada, S. Tabata, A. Kanazawa, K. Harada, et al. (2010)
Plant Physiology 154, 1220-1231
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic and physiological bases for phenological responses to current and predicted climates.
A. M. Wilczek, L. T. Burghardt, A. R. Cobb, M. D. Cooper, S. M. Welch, and J. Schmitt (2010)
Phil Trans R Soc B 365, 3129-3147
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Timing of Flowering.
R. M. Amasino and S. D. Michaels (2010)
Plant Physiology 154, 516-520
   Full Text »    PDF »
Conservation of Arabidopsis thaliana Photoperiodic Flowering Time Genes in Onion (Allium cepa L.).
A. Taylor, A. J. Massiah, and B. Thomas (2010)
Plant Cell Physiol. 51, 1638-1647
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Orchestration of the Floral Transition and Floral Development in Arabidopsis by the Bifunctional Transcription Factor APETALA2.
L. Yant, J. Mathieu, T. T. Dinh, F. Ott, C. Lanz, H. Wollmann, X. Chen, and M. Schmid (2010)
PLANT CELL 22, 2156-2170
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Precocious flowering in trees: the FLOWERING LOCUS T gene as a research and breeding tool in Populus.
H. Zhang, D. E. Harry, C. Ma, C. Yuceer, C.-Y. Hsu, V. Vikram, O. Shevchenko, E. Etherington, and S. H. Strauss (2010)
J. Exp. Bot. 61, 2549-2560
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Information processing without brains - the power of intercellular regulators in plants.
W. Busch and P. N. Benfey (2010)
Development 137, 1215-1226
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Genes of Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).
N. Kotoda, H. Hayashi, M. Suzuki, M. Igarashi, Y. Hatsuyama, S. i. Kidou, T. Igasaki, M. Nishiguchi, K. Yano, T. Shimizu, et al. (2010)
Plant Cell Physiol. 51, 561-575
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcriptional changes in CiFT-introduced transgenic trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.).
F. Nishikawa, T. Endo, T. Shimada, H. Fujii, T. Shimizu, Y. Kobayashi, T. Araki, and M. Omura (2010)
Tree Physiol 30, 431-439
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882