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Science 316 (5832): 1718-1723

Copyright © 2007 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Genome Sequence of Aedes aegypti, a Major Arbovirus Vector

Vishvanath Nene,1* Jennifer R. Wortman,1 Daniel Lawson,2 Brian Haas,1 Chinnappa Kodira,3 Zhijian (Jake) Tu,4 Brendan Loftus,1{dagger} Zhiyong Xi,5 Karyn Megy,2 Manfred Grabherr,3 Quinghu Ren,1 Evgeny M. Zdobnov,6,7,8 Neil F. Lobo,9 Kathryn S. Campbell,10 Susan E. Brown,11 Maria F. Bonaldo,12 Jingsong Zhu,13 Steven P. Sinkins,14 David G. Hogenkamp,15{ddagger} Paolo Amedeo,1 Peter Arensburger,13 Peter W. Atkinson,13 Shelby Bidwell,1 Jim Biedler,4 Ewan Birney,2 Robert V. Bruggner,9 Javier Costas,16 Monique R. Coy,4 Jonathan Crabtree,1 Matt Crawford,3 Becky deBruyn,9 David DeCaprio,3 Karin Eiglmeier,17 Eric Eisenstadt,1 Hamza El-Dorry,18 William M. Gelbart,10 Suely L. Gomes,18 Martin Hammond,2 Linda I. Hannick,1 James R. Hogan,9 Michael H. Holmes,1 David Jaffe,3 J. Spencer Johnston,19 Ryan C. Kennedy,9 Hean Koo,1 Saul Kravitz,20 Evgenia V. Kriventseva,6 David Kulp,21 Kurt LaButti,3 Eduardo Lee,1 Song Li,4 Diane D. Lovin,9 Chunhong Mao,4 Evan Mauceli,3 Carlos F. M. Menck,22 Jason R. Miller,1 Philip Montgomery,3 Akio Mori,9 Ana L. Nascimento,23 Horacio F. Naveira,24 Chad Nusbaum,3 Sinéad O'Leary,3 Joshua Orvis,1 Mihaela Pertea,1§ Hadi Quesneville,25 Kyanne R. Reidenbach,15 Yu-Hui Rogers,20 Charles W. Roth,17 Jennifer R. Schneider,9 Michael Schatz,1§ Martin Shumway,1 Mario Stanke,26,27 Eric O. Stinson,9 Jose M. C. Tubio,28 Janice P. VanZee,15 Sergio Verjovski-Almeida,18 Doreen Werner,27 Owen White,1 Stefan Wyder,6 Qiandong Zeng,3 Qi Zhao,1 Yongmei Zhao,1 Catherine A. Hill,15 Alexander S. Raikhel,13 Marcelo B. Soares,12 Dennis L. Knudson,11 Norman H. Lee,1|| James Galagan,3 Steven L. Salzberg,1§ Ian T. Paulsen,1 George Dimopoulos,5 Frank H. Collins,9 Bruce Birren,3 Claire M. Fraser-Liggett,1# David W. Severson9*

Abstract: We present a draft sequence of the genome of Aedes aegypti, the primary vector for yellow fever and dengue fever, which at ~1376 million base pairs is about 5 times the size of the genome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Nearly 50% of the Ae. aegypti genome consists of transposable elements. These contribute to a factor of ~4 to 6 increase in average gene length and in sizes of intergenic regions relative to An. gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. Nonetheless, chromosomal synteny is generally maintained among all three insects, although conservation of orthologous gene order is higher (by a factor of ~2) between the mosquito species than between either of them and the fruit fly. An increase in genes encoding odorant binding, cytochrome P450, and cuticle domains relative to An. gambiae suggests that members of these protein families underpin some of the biological differences between the two mosquito species.

1 The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.
2 European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SD, UK.
3 Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02141, USA.
4 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.
5 Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
6 University of Geneva Medical School, 1 rue Michel-Servet, Geneva 1211, Switzerland.
7 Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 1 rue Michel-Servet, Geneva 1211, Switzerland.
8 Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK.
9 University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA.
10 Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
11 College of Agricultural Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
12 Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60614, USA.
13 University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
14 University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK.
15 Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
16 Centro Nacional de Genotipado, Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago, Edif. Consultas Planta-2, Santiago de Compostela E-15706, Spain.
17 Institut Pasteur, Paris 75724, France.
18 Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Quimica, Sao Paulo SP 05508-900, Brazil.
19 Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.
20 Joint Technology Center, 5 Research Place, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.
21 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.
22 Universidade de Sao Paulo, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Sao Paulo SP 05508-900, Brazil.
23 Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo SP 05503-900, Brazil.
24 Universidade da Coruña, A Coruña 15001, Spain.
25 Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot et Université Pierre-et-Marie Curie 2, Place Jussieu, Paris 75252, France.
26 507A Engineering 2, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.
27 Universität Göttingen, Goldschmidtstraße 1, Göttingen 37077, Germany.
28 Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela 15706, Spain.

{dagger} Present address: University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.

{ddagger} Deceased.

§ Present address: 3125 Biomolecular Sciences Building, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

|| Present address: George Washington University Medical Center, Ross Hall, Room 603, 2300 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

# Present address: Institute of Genome Sciences and Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: nene{at} (V.N.); severson.1{at} (D.W.S.)

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