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Science 318 (5856): 1645-1647

Copyright © 2007 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Ketamine-Induced Loss of Phenotype of Fast-Spiking Interneurons Is Mediated by NADPH-Oxidase

M. Margarita Behrens,* Sameh S. Ali, Diep N. Dao, Jacinta Lucero, Grigoriy Shekhtman, Kevin L. Quick, Laura L. Dugan*

Abstract: Abuse of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine can lead to a syndrome indistinguishable from schizophrenia. In animals, repetitive exposure to this N-methyl-D-aspartate–receptor antagonist induces the dysfunction of a subset of cortical fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons, with loss of expression of parvalbumin and the {gamma}-aminobutyric acid–producing enzyme GAD67. We show here that exposure of mice to ketamine induced a persistent increase in brain superoxide due to activation in neurons of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Decreasing superoxide production prevented the effects of ketamine on inhibitory interneurons in the prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that NADPH oxidase may represent a novel target for the treatment of ketamine-induced psychosis.

Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093–0746, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mbehrens{at} (M.M.B.); ladugan{at} (L.L.D.)

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