Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

Science 319 (5861): 327-330

Copyright © 2008 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Smed-βcatenin-1 Is Required for Anteroposterior Blastema Polarity in Planarian Regeneration

Christian P. Petersen1, and Peter W. Reddien1,2*

Abstract: Planarian flatworms can regenerate heads at anterior-facing wounds and tails at posterior-facing wounds throughout the body. How this regeneration polarity is specified has been a classic problem for more than a century. We identified a planarian gene, Smed-βcatenin-1, that controls regeneration polarity. Posterior-facing blastemas regenerate a head instead of a tail in Smed-βcatenin-1(RNAi) animals. Smed-βcatenin-1 is required after wounding and at any posterior-facing wound for polarity. Additionally, intact Smed-βcatenin-1(RNAi) animals display anteriorization during tissue turnover. Five Wnt genes and a secreted Frizzled-related Wnt antagonist-like gene are expressed in domains along the anteroposterior axis that reset to new positions during regeneration, which suggests that Wnts control polarity through Smed-βcatenin-1. Our data suggest that β-catenin specifies the posterior character of the anteroposterior axis throughout the Bilateria and specifies regeneration polarity in planarians.

1 Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
2 Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: reddien{at}wi.mit.edu


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
Planarian yorkie/YAP functions to integrate adult stem cell proliferation, organ homeostasis and maintenance of axial patterning.
A. Y. T. Lin and B. J. Pearson (2014)
Development 141, 1197-1208
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Selective amputation of the pharynx identifies a FoxA-dependent regeneration program in planaria.
C. E. Adler, C. W. Seidel, S. A. McKinney, and A. Sanchez Alvarado (2014)
eLife Sci 3, e02238
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Towards a bioinformatics of patterning: a computational approach to understanding regulative morphogenesis.
D. Lobo, T. J. Malone, and M. Levin (2013)
Biology Open 2, 156-169
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
PBX/extradenticle is required to re-establish axial structures and polarity during planarian regeneration.
R. A. Blassberg, D. A. Felix, B. Tejada-Romero, and A. A. Aboobaker (2013)
Development 140, 730-739
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
pbx is required for pole and eye regeneration in planarians.
C.-C. G. Chen, I. E. Wang, and P. W. Reddien (2013)
Development 140, 719-729
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Follistatin antagonizes Activin signaling and acts with Notum to direct planarian head regeneration.
R. H. Roberts-Galbraith and P. A. Newmark (2013)
PNAS 110, 1363-1368
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bioelectric signaling regulates head and organ size during planarian regeneration.
W. S. Beane, J. Morokuma, J. M. Lemire, and M. Levin (2013)
Development 140, 313-322
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Learning about loss.
A. Sanchez Alvarado (2013)
eLife Sci 2, e00533
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Role of Apoptosis-Induced Proliferation for Regeneration and Cancer.
H. D. Ryoo and A. Bergmann (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4, a008797
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Wnt Signaling and Injury Repair.
J. L. Whyte, A. A. Smith, and J. A. Helms (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4, a008078
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Evolution of the Wnt Pathway.
T. W. Holstein (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4, a007922
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A molecular wound response program associated with regeneration initiation in planarians.
D. Wenemoser, S. W. Lapan, A. W. Wilkinson, G. W. Bell, and P. W. Reddien (2012)
Genes & Dev. 26, 988-1002
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Wnt1/{beta}catenin injury response activates the epicardium and cardiac fibroblasts to promote cardiac repair.
J. Duan, C. Gherghe, D. Liu, E. Hamlett, L. Srikantha, L. Rodgers, J. N. Regan, M. Rojas, M. Willis, A. Leask, et al. (2012)
EMBO J. 31, 429-442
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Opposing Roles of Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels in Neuronal Control of Regenerative Patterning.
D. Zhang, J. D. Chan, T. Nogi, and J. S. Marchant (2011)
J. Neurosci. 31, 15983-15995
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A LIM-homeobox gene is required for differentiation of Wnt-expressing cells at the posterior end of the planarian body.
T. Hayashi, M. Motoishi, S. Yazawa, K. Itomi, C. Tanegashima, O. Nishimura, K. Agata, and H. Tarui (2011)
Development 138, 3679-3688
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gut Regeneration in Holothurians: A Snapshot of Recent Developments.
V. S. Mashanov and J. E. Garcia-Arraras (2011)
Biol. Bull. 221, 93-109
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neuroblast migration along the anteroposterior axis of C. elegans is controlled by opposing gradients of Wnts and a secreted Frizzled-related protein.
M. Harterink, D. h. Kim, T. C. Middelkoop, T. D. Doan, A. van Oudenaarden, and H. C. Korswagen (2011)
Development 138, 2915-2924
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ERK signaling controls blastema cell differentiation during planarian regeneration.
J. Tasaki, N. Shibata, O. Nishimura, K. Itomi, Y. Tabata, F. Son, N. Suzuki, R. Araki, M. Abe, K. Agata, et al. (2011)
Development 138, 2417-2427
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Polarized notum Activation at Wounds Inhibits Wnt Function to Promote Planarian Head Regeneration.
C. P. Petersen and P. W. Reddien (2011)
Science 332, 852-855
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
{beta}-Catenin specifies the endomesoderm and defines the posterior organizer of the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii.
S. Darras, J. Gerhart, M. Terasaki, M. Kirschner, and C. J. Lowe (2011)
Development 138, 959-970
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dishevelled is essential for neural connectivity and planar cell polarity in planarians.
M. Almuedo-Castillo, E. Salo, and T. Adell (2011)
PNAS 108, 2813-2818
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The planarian flatworm: an in vivo model for stem cell biology and nervous system regeneration.
L. Gentile, F. Cebria, and K. Bartscherer (2011)
Dis. Model. Mech. 4, 12-19
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Apoptosis, Stem Cells, and Tissue Regeneration.
A. Bergmann and H. Steller (2010)
Science Signaling 3, re8
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Wnt signaling promotes oral but suppresses aboral structures in Hydractinia metamorphosis and regeneration.
D. J. Duffy, G. Plickert, T. Kuenzel, W. Tilmann, and U. Frank (2010)
Development 137, 3057-3066
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
In vivo RNAi: Today and Tomorrow.
N. Perrimon, J.-Q. Ni, and L. Perkins (2010)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2, a003640
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Complete Functional Segregation of Planarian {beta}-Catenin-1 and -2 in Mediating Wnt Signaling and Cell Adhesion.
G. Chai, C. Ma, K. Bao, L. Zheng, X. Wang, Z. Sun, E. Salo, T. Adell, and W. Wu (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 24120-24130
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Wnt Signaling in Axial Patterning and Regeneration: Lessons from Planaria.
E. M. De Robertis (2010)
Science Signaling 3, pe21
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Wnt Proteins Promote Bone Regeneration.
S. Minear, P. Leucht, J. Jiang, B. Liu, A. Zeng, C. Fuerer, R. Nusse, and J. A. Helms (2010)
Science Translational Medicine 2, 29ra30
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
On growth and form: a Cartesian coordinate system of Wnt and BMP signaling specifies bilaterian body axes.
C. Niehrs (2010)
Development 137, 845-857
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Planarian Hedgehog/Patched establishes anterior-posterior polarity by regulating Wnt signaling.
S. Yazawa, Y. Umesono, T. Hayashi, H. Tarui, and K. Agata (2009)
PNAS 106, 22329-22334
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Planarian Hh Signaling Regulates Regeneration Polarity and Links Hh Pathway Evolution to Cilia.
J. C. Rink, K. A. Gurley, S. A. Elliott, and A. Sanchez Alvarado (2009)
Science 326, 1406-1410
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A wound-induced Wnt expression program controls planarian regeneration polarity.
C. P. Petersen and P. W. Reddien (2009)
PNAS 106, 17061-17066
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Models for the Generation and Interpretation of Gradients.
H. Meinhardt (2009)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 1, a001362
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Role of Stromal Stem Cells in Tissue Regeneration and Wound Repair.
T. S. Stappenbeck and H. Miyoshi (2009)
Science 324, 1666-1669
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Wnt/{beta}-Catenin and noncanonical Wnt signaling interact in tissue evagination in the simple eumetazoan Hydra.
I. Philipp, R. Aufschnaiter, S. Ozbek, S. Pontasch, M. Jenewein, H. Watanabe, F. Rentzsch, T. W. Holstein, and B. Hobmayer (2009)
PNAS 106, 4290-4295
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Smed-Evi/Wntless is required for {beta}-catenin-dependent and -independent processes during planarian regeneration.
T. Adell, E. Salo, M. Boutros, and K. Bartscherer (2009)
Development 136, 905-910
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Silencing of Smed-{beta}catenin1 generates radial-like hypercephalized planarians.
M. Iglesias, J. L. Gomez-Skarmeta, E. Salo, and T. Adell (2008)
Development 135, 1215-1221
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882