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Science 322 (5900): 390-395

Copyright © 2008 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Feedback Loops Shape Cellular Signals in Space and Time

Onn Brandman1, and Tobias Meyer2

Abstract: Positive and negative feedback loops are common regulatory elements in biological signaling systems. We discuss core feedback motifs that have distinct roles in shaping signaling responses in space and time. We also discuss approaches to experimentally investigate feedback loops in signaling systems.

1 Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California-San Francisco and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. E-mail: Onn.Brandman{at}
2 Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, 318 Campus Drive, Clark Building W200, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305–5174, USA. E-mail: tobias1{at}

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