Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 325 (5943): 1001-1005

Copyright © 2009 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Bcl6 Mediates the Development of T Follicular Helper Cells

Roza I. Nurieva,* Yeonseok Chung, Gustavo J. Martinez, Xuexian O. Yang, Shinya Tanaka, Tatyana D. Matskevitch, Yi-Hong Wang, Chen Dong*

Abstract: A fundamental function of CD4+ helper T (TH) cells is the regulation of B cell–mediated humoral immunity. Development of T follicular helper (TFH) cells that provide help to B cells is mediated by the cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-21 but is independent of TH1, TH2, and TH17 effector cell lineages. Here, we characterize the function of Bcl6, a transcription factor selectively expressed in TFH cells. Bcl6 expression is regulated by interleukin-6 and interleukin-21. Bcl6 overexpression induced TFH-related gene expression and inhibited other TH lineage cell differentiation in a DNA binding–dependent manner. Moreover, Bcl6 deficiency in T cells resulted in impaired TFH cell development and germinal center reactions, and altered production of other effector T cell subsets. Our data thus illustrate that Bcl6 is required for programming of TFH cell generation.

Department of Immunology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: rnurieva{at} (R.I.N); cdong{at} (C.D.)

B Cell Antigen Presentation in the Initiation of Follicular Helper T Cell and Germinal Center Differentiation.
L. G. Barnett, H. M. A. Simkins, B. E. Barnett, L. L. Korn, A. L. Johnson, E. J. Wherry, G. F. Wu, and T. M. Laufer (2014)
J. Immunol. 192, 3607-3617
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Monocyte-derived dendritic cells promote T follicular helper cell differentiation.
S. Chakarov and N. Fazilleau (2014)
EMBO Mol Med.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
B Cells in T Follicular Helper Cell Development and Function: Separable Roles in Delivery of ICOS Ligand and Antigen.
J. S. Weinstein, S. A. Bertino, S. G. Hernandez, A. C. Poholek, T. B. Teplitzky, H. N. Nowyhed, and J. Craft (2014)
J. Immunol. 192, 3166-3179
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Opposing actions of IL-2 and IL-21 on Th9 differentiation correlate with their differential regulation of BCL6 expression.
W. Liao, R. Spolski, P. Li, N. Du, E. E. West, M. Ren, S. Mitra, and W. J. Leonard (2014)
PNAS 111, 3508-3513
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Type I IFN Induces Binding of STAT1 to Bcl6: Divergent Roles of STAT Family Transcription Factors in the T Follicular Helper Cell Genetic Program.
S. Nakayamada, A. C. Poholek, K. T. Lu, H. Takahashi, M. Kato, S. Iwata, K. Hirahara, J. L. Cannons, P. L. Schwartzberg, G. Vahedi, et al. (2014)
J. Immunol. 192, 2156-2166
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
PTPN22 Controls the Germinal Center by Influencing the Numbers and Activity of T Follicular Helper Cells.
C. J. Maine, K. Marquardt, J. Cheung, and L. A. Sherman (2014)
J. Immunol. 192, 1415-1424
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcription factor interplay in T helper cell differentiation.
C. M. Evans and R. G. Jenner (2013)
Briefings in Functional Genomics 12, 499-511
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Insights into the Role of Bcl6 in Follicular Th Cells Using a New Conditional Mutant Mouse Model.
K. Hollister, S. Kusam, H. Wu, N. Clegg, A. Mondal, D. V. Sawant, and A. L. Dent (2013)
J. Immunol. 191, 3705-3711
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Notch Signaling Regulates Follicular Helper T Cell Differentiation.
F. Auderset, S. Schuster, N. Fasnacht, M. Coutaz, M. Charmoy, U. Koch, S. Favre, A. Wilson, F. Trottein, J. Alexander, et al. (2013)
J. Immunol. 191, 2344-2350
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
STAT5 Outcompetes STAT3 To Regulate the Expression of the Oncogenic Transcriptional Modulator BCL6.
S. R. Walker, E. A. Nelson, J. E. Yeh, L. Pinello, G.-C. Yuan, and D. A. Frank (2013)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 33, 2879-2890
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neonatal Follicular Th Cell Responses Are Impaired and Modulated by IL-4.
I. Debock, K. Jaworski, H. Chadlaoui, S. Delbauve, N. Passon, L. Twyffels, O. Leo, and V. Flamand (2013)
J. Immunol. 191, 1231-1239
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated induction of the microRNA-132/212 cluster promotes interleukin-17-producing T-helper cell differentiation.
T. Nakahama, H. Hanieh, N. T. Nguyen, I. Chinen, B. Ripley, D. Millrine, S. Lee, K. K. Nyati, P. K. Dubey, K. Chowdhury, et al. (2013)
PNAS 110, 11964-11969
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IL-12 receptor {beta}1 deficiency alters in vivo T follicular helper cell response in humans.
N. Schmitt, J. Bustamante, L. Bourdery, S. E. Bentebibel, S. Boisson-Dupuis, F. Hamlin, M. V. Tran, D. Blankenship, V. Pascual, D. A. Savino, et al. (2013)
Blood 121, 3375-3385
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bcl6 Expressing Follicular Helper CD4 T Cells Are Fate Committed Early and Have the Capacity To Form Memory.
Y. S. Choi, J. A. Yang, I. Yusuf, R. J. Johnston, J. Greenbaum, B. Peters, and S. Crotty (2013)
J. Immunol. 190, 4014-4026
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infects Follicular Helper CD4 T Cells in Lymphoid Tissues during Pathogenic Infection of Pigtail Macaques.
Y. Xu, C. Weatherall, M. Bailey, S. Alcantara, R. De Rose, J. Estaquier, K. Wilson, K. Suzuki, J. Corbeil, D. A. Cooper, et al. (2013)
J. Virol. 87, 3760-3773
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cutting Edge: STAT1 Is Required for IL-6-Mediated Bcl6 Induction for Early Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation.
Y. S. Choi, D. Eto, J. A. Yang, C. Lao, and S. Crotty (2013)
J. Immunol. 190, 3049-3053
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Induction of ICOS+CXCR3+CXCR5+ TH Cells Correlates with Antibody Responses to Influenza Vaccination.
S.-E. Bentebibel, S. Lopez, G. Obermoser, N. Schmitt, C. Mueller, C. Harrod, E. Flano, A. Mejias, R. A. Albrecht, D. Blankenship, et al. (2013)
Science Translational Medicine 5, 176ra32
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Antioxidant Treatment Regulates the Humoral Immune Response during Acute Viral Infection.
K. E. Crump, P. K. Langston, S. Rajkarnikar, and J. M. Grayson (2013)
J. Virol. 87, 2577-2586
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Environmental and T Cell-Intrinsic Factors Limit the Expansion of Neonatal Follicular T Helper Cells but May Be Circumvented by Specific Adjuvants.
B. Mastelic, A. T. Kamath, P. Fontannaz, C. Tougne, A.-F. Rochat, E. Belnoue, C. Combescure, F. Auderset, P.-H. Lambert, F. Tacchini-Cottier, et al. (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 5764-5772
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Lupus-Prone NZM2410/NZW Strain-Derived Sle1b Sublocus Alters the Germinal Center Checkpoint in Female Mice in a B Cell-Intrinsic Manner.
E. B. Wong, T. N. Khan, C. Mohan, and Z. S. M. Rahman (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 5667-5681
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bcl6 Controls the Th2 Inflammatory Activity of Regulatory T Cells by Repressing Gata3 Function.
D. V. Sawant, S. Sehra, E. T. Nguyen, R. Jadhav, K. Englert, R. Shinnakasu, G. Hangoc, H. E. Broxmeyer, T. Nakayama, N. B. Perumal, et al. (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 4759-4769
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
B and T cells collaborate in antiviral responses via IL-6, IL-21, and transcriptional activator and coactivator, Oct2 and OBF-1.
A. Karnowski, S. Chevrier, G. T. Belz, A. Mount, D. Emslie, K. D'Costa, D. M. Tarlinton, A. Kallies, and L. M. Corcoran (2012)
J. Exp. Med. 209, 2049-2064
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Infection with Toxoplasma gondii Alters Lymphotoxin Expression Associated with Changes in Splenic Architecture.
A. Glatman Zaretsky, J. S. Silver, M. Siwicki, A. Durham, C. F. Ware, and C. A. Hunter (2012)
Infect. Immun. 80, 3602-3610
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
LAPCs promote follicular helper T cell differentiation of Ag-primed CD4+ T cells during respiratory virus infection.
J.-K. Yoo, E. N. Fish, and T. J. Braciale (2012)
J. Exp. Med. 209, 1853-1867
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bcl6 expression specifies the T follicular helper cell program in vivo.
X. Liu, X. Yan, B. Zhong, R. I. Nurieva, A. Wang, X. Wang, N. Martin-Orozco, Y. Wang, S. H. Chang, E. Esplugues, et al. (2012)
J. Exp. Med. 209, 1841-1852
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Zinc finger transcription factor zDC is a negative regulator required to prevent activation of classical dendritic cells in the steady state.
M. M. Meredith, K. Liu, A. O. Kamphorst, J. Idoyaga, A. Yamane, P. Guermonprez, S. Rihn, K.-H. Yao, I. T. Silva, T. Y. Oliveira, et al. (2012)
J. Exp. Med. 209, 1583-1593
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Impaired peripheral blood T-follicular helper cell function in HIV-infected nonresponders to the 2009 H1N1/09 vaccine.
S. Pallikkuth, A. Parmigiani, S. Y. Silva, V. K. George, M. Fischl, R. Pahwa, and S. Pahwa (2012)
Blood 120, 985-993
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IL-21 Promotes Lupus-like Disease in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease through Both CD4 T Cell- and B Cell-Intrinsic Mechanisms.
V. Nguyen, I. Luzina, H. Rus, C. Tegla, C. Chen, and V. Rus (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 1081-1093
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The origins, function, and regulation of T follicular helper cells.
C. S. Ma, E. K. Deenick, M. Batten, and S. G. Tangye (2012)
J. Exp. Med. 209, 1241-1253
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Single and Coexpression of CXCR4 and CXCR5 Identifies CD4 T Helper Cells in Distinct Lymph Node Niches during Influenza Virus Infection.
R. A. Elsner, D. N. Ernst, and N. Baumgarth (2012)
J. Virol. 86, 7146-7157
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Clinicopathologic Analysis of Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Follicular Variant, and Comparison With Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma: Bcl-6 Expression Might Affect Progression Between These Disorders.
H. Miyoshi, K. Sato, D. Niino, F. Arakawa, Y. Kimura, J. Kiyasu, M. Takeuchi, M. Yoshida, Y. Okada, Y. Nakamura, et al. (2012)
Am J Clin Pathol 137, 879-889
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cutting Edge: In the Absence of Regulatory T Cells, a Unique Th Cell Population Expands and Leads to a Loss of B Cell Anergy.
S. M. Leonardo, J. L. De Santis, L. P. Malherbe, and S. B. Gauld (2012)
J. Immunol. 188, 5223-5226
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcription factor IRF4 determines germinal center formation through follicular T-helper cell differentiation.
N. Bollig, A. Brustle, K. Kellner, W. Ackermann, E. Abass, H. Raifer, B. Camara, C. Brendel, G. Giel, E. Bothur, et al. (2012)
PNAS 109, 8664-8669
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functional STAT3 deficiency compromises the generation of human T follicular helper cells.
C. S. Ma, D. T. Avery, A. Chan, M. Batten, J. Bustamante, S. Boisson-Dupuis, P. D. Arkwright, A. Y. Kreins, D. Averbuch, D. Engelhard, et al. (2012)
Blood 119, 3997-4008
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bcl6 and Maf Cooperate To Instruct Human Follicular Helper CD4 T Cell Differentiation.
M. A. Kroenke, D. Eto, M. Locci, M. Cho, T. Davidson, E. K. Haddad, and S. Crotty (2012)
J. Immunol. 188, 3734-3744
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
PIM1 gene cooperates with human BCL6 gene to promote the development of lymphomas.
B. W. Baron, J. Anastasi, E. M. Hyjek, J. Bies, P. L. Reddy, J. Dong, L. Joseph, M. J. Thirman, K. Wroblewski, L. Wolff, et al. (2012)
PNAS 109, 5735-5739
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Follicular Helper NKT Cells Induce Limited B Cell Responses and Germinal Center Formation in the Absence of CD4+ T Cell Help.
E. Tonti, M. Fedeli, A. Napolitano, M. Iannacone, U. H. von Andrian, L. G. Guidotti, S. Abrignani, G. Casorati, and P. Dellabona (2012)
J. Immunol. 188, 3217-3222
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
STAT5 Protein Negatively Regulates T Follicular Helper (Tfh) Cell Generation and Function.
R. I. Nurieva, A. Podd, Y. Chen, A. M. Alekseev, M. Yu, X. Qi, H. Huang, R. Wen, J. Wang, H. S. Li, et al. (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 11234-11239
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Crystal Structure of Interleukin-21 Receptor (IL-21R) Bound to IL-21 Reveals That Sugar Chain Interacting with WSXWS Motif Is Integral Part of IL-21R.
O. J. Hamming, L. Kang, A. Svensson, J. L. Karlsen, H. Rahbek-Nielsen, S. R. Paludan, S. A. Hjorth, K. Bondensgaard, and R. Hartmann (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 9454-9460
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A germinal center-independent pathway generates unswitched memory B cells early in the primary response.
J. J. Taylor, K. A. Pape, and M. K. Jenkins (2012)
J. Exp. Med. 209, 597-606
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
STAT5 is a potent negative regulator of TFH cell differentiation.
R. J. Johnston, Y. S. Choi, J. A. Diamond, J. A. Yang, and S. Crotty (2012)
J. Exp. Med. 209, 243-250
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ZBTB1 is a determinant of lymphoid development.
O. M. Siggs, X. Li, Y. Xia, and B. Beutler (2012)
J. Exp. Med. 209, 19-27
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Late Interleukin-6 Escalates T Follicular Helper Cell Responses and Controls a Chronic Viral Infection.
J. A. Harker, G. M. Lewis, L. Mack, and E. I. Zuniga (2011)
Science 334, 825-829
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of the Germinal Center Reaction by Foxp3+ Follicular Regulatory T Cells.
I. Wollenberg, A. Agua-Doce, A. Hernandez, C. Almeida, V. G. Oliveira, J. Faro, and L. Graca (2011)
J. Immunol. 187, 4553-4560
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tolerogenic function of Blimp-1 in dendritic cells.
S. J. Kim, Y. R. Zou, J. Goldstein, B. Reizis, and B. Diamond (2011)
J. Exp. Med. 208, 2193-2199
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The BTB-ZF Family of Transcription Factors: Key Regulators of Lineage Commitment and Effector Function Development in the Immune System.
A. M. Beaulieu and D. B. Sant'Angelo (2011)
J. Immunol. 187, 2841-2847
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cutting Edge: Distinct Waves of BCL6 Expression during T Follicular Helper Cell Development.
D. Baumjohann, T. Okada, and K. M. Ansel (2011)
J. Immunol. 187, 2089-2092
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human tonsil B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6)-expressing CD4+ T-cell subset specialized for B-cell help outside germinal centers.
S.-E. Bentebibel, N. Schmitt, J. Banchereau, and H. Ueno (2011)
PNAS 108, E488-E497
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cutting Edge: Dendritic Cell-Restricted Antigen Presentation Initiates the Follicular Helper T Cell Program but Cannot Complete Ultimate Effector Differentiation.
R. Goenka, L. G. Barnett, J. S. Silver, P. J. O'Neill, C. A. Hunter, M. P. Cancro, and T. M. Laufer (2011)
J. Immunol. 187, 1091-1095
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
B cell priming for extrafollicular antibody responses requires Bcl-6 expression by T cells.
S. K. Lee, R. J. Rigby, D. Zotos, L. M. Tsai, S. Kawamoto, J. L. Marshall, R. R. Ramiscal, T. D. Chan, D. Gatto, R. Brink, et al. (2011)
J. Exp. Med. 208, 1377-1388
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CXCR5 Expressing Human Central Memory CD4 T Cells and Their Relevance for Humoral Immune Responses.
N. Chevalier, D. Jarrossay, E. Ho, D. T. Avery, C. S. Ma, D. Yu, F. Sallusto, S. G. Tangye, and C. R. Mackay (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 5556-5568
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Blockade of B7-H1 (Programmed Death Ligand 1) Enhances Humoral Immunity by Positively Regulating the Generation of T Follicular Helper Cells.
E. Hams, M. J. McCarron, S. Amu, H. Yagita, M. Azuma, L. Chen, and P. G. Fallon (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 5648-5655
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Viral persistence redirects CD4 T cell differentiation toward T follicular helper cells.
L. M. Fahey, E. B. Wilson, H. Elsaesser, C. D. Fistonich, D. B. McGavern, and D. G. Brooks (2011)
J. Exp. Med. 208, 987-999
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The lineage-defining factors T-bet and Bcl-6 collaborate to regulate Th1 gene expression patterns.
K. J. Oestreich, A. C. Huang, and A. S. Weinmann (2011)
J. Exp. Med. 208, 1001-1013
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Memory CD4 T Cells That Express CXCR5 Provide Accelerated Help to B Cells.
M. K. L. MacLeod, A. David, A. S. McKee, F. Crawford, J. W. Kappler, and P. Marrack (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 2889-2896
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mast Cell-Derived IL-10 Suppresses Germinal Center Formation by Affecting T Follicular Helper Cell Function.
R. Chacon-Salinas, A. Y. Limon-Flores, A. D. Chavez-Blanco, A. Gonzalez-Estrada, and S. E. Ullrich (2011)
J. Immunol. 186, 25-31
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IL-27 supports germinal center function by enhancing IL-21 production and the function of T follicular helper cells.
M. Batten, N. Ramamoorthi, N. M. Kljavin, C. S. Ma, J. H. Cox, H. S. Dengler, D. M. Danilenko, P. Caplazi, M. Wong, D. A. Fulcher, et al. (2010)
J. Exp. Med. 207, 2895-2906
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
gp130 at the nexus of inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer.
J. S. Silver and C. A. Hunter (2010)
J. Leukoc. Biol. 88, 1145-1156
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IL-21 Deficiency Influences CD8 T Cell Quality and Recall Responses following an Acute Viral Infection.
J. S. Yi, J. T. Ingram, and A. J. Zajac (2010)
J. Immunol. 185, 4835-4845
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Activity in T Cells Regulates the Magnitude of the Germinal Center Reaction.
J. Rolf, S. E. Bell, D. Kovesdi, M. L. Janas, D. R. Soond, L. M. C. Webb, S. Santinelli, T. Saunders, B. Hebeis, N. Killeen, et al. (2010)
J. Immunol. 185, 4042-4052
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator Suppresses IL-21 Production from Follicular Th Cells and Subsequent Humoral Immune Responses.
D. Kashiwakuma, A. Suto, Y. Hiramatsu, K. Ikeda, H. Takatori, K. Suzuki, S.-i. Kagami, K. Hirose, N. Watanabe, I. Iwamoto, et al. (2010)
J. Immunol. 185, 2730-2736
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of the IL-21 Gene by the NF-{kappa}B Transcription Factor c-Rel.
G. Chen, K. Hardy, K. Bunting, S. Daley, L. Ma, and M. F. Shannon (2010)
J. Immunol. 185, 2350-2359
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Proinflammatory T helper type 17 cells are effective B-cell helpers.
M. Mitsdoerffer, Y. Lee, A. Jager, H.-J. Kim, T. Korn, J. K. Kolls, H. Cantor, E. Bettelli, and V. K. Kuchroo (2010)
PNAS 107, 14292-14297
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Homeostatic expansion of autoreactive immunoglobulin-secreting cells in the Rag2 mouse model of Omenn syndrome.
B. Cassani, P. L. Poliani, V. Marrella, F. Schena, A. V. Sauer, M. Ravanini, D. Strina, C. E. Busse, S. Regenass, H. Wardemann, et al. (2010)
J. Exp. Med. 207, 1525-1540
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Germinal Center T Follicular Helper Cell IL-4 Production Is Dependent on Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Receptor (CD150).
I. Yusuf, R. Kageyama, L. Monticelli, R. J. Johnston, D. DiToro, K. Hansen, B. Barnett, and S. Crotty (2010)
J. Immunol. 185, 190-202
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
In Vivo Regulation of Bcl6 and T Follicular Helper Cell Development.
A. C. Poholek, K. Hansen, S. G. Hernandez, D. Eto, A. Chandele, J. S. Weinstein, X. Dong, J. M. Odegard, S. M. Kaech, A. L. Dent, et al. (2010)
J. Immunol. 185, 313-326
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Signaling Pathways in T Follicular Helper Cells.
J. Rolf, K. Fairfax, and M. Turner (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 6563-6568
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcriptional Repressor BCL6 Controls Th17 Responses by Controlling Gene Expression in Both T Cells and Macrophages.
A. Mondal, D. Sawant, and A. L. Dent (2010)
J. Immunol. 184, 4123-4132
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanisms Underlying Lineage Commitment and Plasticity of Helper CD4+ T Cells.
J. J. O'Shea and W. E. Paul (2010)
Science 327, 1098-1102
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NIP45 controls the magnitude of the type 2 T helper cell response.
J. W. Fathman, M. F. Gurish, S. Hemmers, K. Bonham, D. S. Friend, M. J. Grusby, L. H. Glimcher, and K. A. Mowen (2010)
PNAS 107, 3663-3668
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IL-21 acts directly on B cells to regulate Bcl-6 expression and germinal center responses.
M. A. Linterman, L. Beaton, D. Yu, R. R. Ramiscal, M. Srivastava, J. J. Hogan, N. K. Verma, M. J. Smyth, R. J. Rigby, and C. G. Vinuesa (2010)
J. Exp. Med. 207, 353-363
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
An Expanding Job Description for Bcl6.
E. Bi and B. H. Ye (2010)
J Mol Cell Biol 2, 5-7
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IL-21 and T follicular helper cells.
R. Spolski and W. J. Leonard (2010)
Int. Immunol. 22, 7-12
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inducible costimulator promotes helper T-cell differentiation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase.
M. Gigoux, J. Shang, Y. Pak, M. Xu, J. Choe, T. W. Mak, and W.-K. Suh (2009)
PNAS 106, 20371-20376
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Yin and Yang of Follicular Helper T Cells.
A. Awasthi and V. K. Kuchroo (2009)
Science 325, 953-955
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882