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Science 325 (5948): 1682-1686

Copyright © 2009 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Global Analysis of Cdk1 Substrate Phosphorylation Sites Provides Insights into Evolution

Liam J. Holt,1,* Brian B. Tuch,2,* Judit Villén,3,* Alexander D. Johnson,2 Steven P. Gygi,3,{dagger} David O. Morgan1,{dagger}

Abstract: To explore the mechanisms and evolution of cell-cycle control, we analyzed the position and conservation of large numbers of phosphorylation sites for the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We combined specific chemical inhibition of Cdk1 with quantitative mass spectrometry to identify the positions of 547 phosphorylation sites on 308 Cdk1 substrates in vivo. Comparisons of these substrates with orthologs throughout the ascomycete lineage revealed that the position of most phosphorylation sites is not conserved in evolution; instead, clusters of sites shift position in rapidly evolving disordered regions. We propose that the regulation of protein function by phosphorylation often depends on simple nonspecific mechanisms that disrupt or enhance protein-protein interactions. The gain or loss of phosphorylation sites in rapidly evolving regions could facilitate the evolution of kinase-signaling circuits.

1 Departments of Physiology and Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
3 Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: steven_gygi{at} (S.P.G.); david.morgan{at} (D.O.M.)

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