Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

Science 326 (5954): 850-853

Copyright © 2009 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

A Type I–Secreted, Sulfated Peptide Triggers XA21-Mediated Innate Immunity

Sang-Won Lee,* Sang-Wook Han,* Malinee Sririyanum, Chang-Jin Park, Young-Su Seo, Pamela C. Ronald{dagger}

Abstract: The rice Xa21 gene confers immunity to most strains of the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis of biologically active fractions from Xoo supernatants led to the identification of a 194–amino acid protein designated Ax21 (activator of XA21-mediated immunity). A sulfated, 17–amino acid synthetic peptide (axYS22) derived from the N-terminal region of Ax21 is sufficient for activity, whereas peptides lacking tyrosine sulfation are biologically inactive. Using coimmunoprecipitation, we found that XA21 is required for axYS22 binding and recognition. axYS22 is 100% conserved in all analyzed Xanthomonas species, confirming that Ax21 is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern and that XA21 is a pattern recognition receptor.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: pcronald{at}ucdavis.edu


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
Membrane trafficking and autophagy in pathogen-triggered cell death and immunity.
O.-K. Teh and D. Hofius (2014)
J. Exp. Bot. 65, 1297-1312
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Peptides as triggers of plant defence.
M. Albert (2013)
J. Exp. Bot. 64, 5269-5279
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Retraction.
S.-W. Lee, S.-W. Han, M. Sririyanum, C.-J. Park, Y.-S. Seo, and P. C. Ronald (2013)
Science 342, 191
   Full Text »    PDF »
Roles of Plant Hormones and Their Interplay in Rice Immunity.
D.-L. Yang, Y. Yang, and Z. He (2013)
Mol Plant 6, 675-685
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Recent Progress in Understanding PAMP- and Effector-Triggered Immunity against the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.
W. Liu, J. Liu, Y. Ning, B. Ding, X. Wang, Z. Wang, and G.-L. Wang (2013)
Mol Plant 6, 605-620
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
BIK1 interacts with PEPRs to mediate ethylene-induced immunity.
Z. Liu, Y. Wu, F. Yang, Y. Zhang, S. Chen, Q. Xie, X. Tian, and J.-M. Zhou (2013)
PNAS 110, 6205-6210
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Heterotrimeric G Proteins Serve as a Converging Point in Plant Defense Signaling Activated by Multiple Receptor-Like Kinases.
J. Liu, P. Ding, T. Sun, Y. Nitta, O. Dong, X. Huang, W. Yang, X. Li, J. R. Botella, and Y. Zhang (2013)
Plant Physiology 161, 2146-2158
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Microbial recognition and evasion of host immunity.
M. J. C. Pel and C. M. J. Pieterse (2013)
J. Exp. Bot. 64, 1237-1248
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Magnaporthe oryzae Effector AvrPiz-t Targets the RING E3 Ubiquitin Ligase APIP6 to Suppress Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern-Triggered Immunity in Rice.
C.-H. Park, S. Chen, G. Shirsekar, B. Zhou, C. H. Khang, P. Songkumarn, A. J. Afzal, Y. Ning, R. Wang, M. Bellizzi, et al. (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 4748-4762
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The U-Box E3 Ligase SPL11/PUB13 Is a Convergence Point of Defense and Flowering Signaling in Plants.
J. Liu, W. Li, Y. Ning, G. Shirsekar, Y. Cai, X. Wang, L. Dai, Z. Wang, W. Liu, and G.-L. Wang (2012)
Plant Physiology 160, 28-37
   Full Text »    PDF »
Contamination Risks in Work with Synthetic Peptides: flg22 as an Example of a Pirate in Commercial Peptide Preparations.
K. Mueller, D. Chinchilla, M. Albert, A. K. Jehle, H. Kalbacher, T. Boller, and G. Felix (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 3193-3197
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lysin Motif-Containing Proteins LYP4 and LYP6 Play Dual Roles in Peptidoglycan and Chitin Perception in Rice Innate Immunity.
B. Liu, J.-F. Li, Y. Ao, J. Qu, Z. Li, J. Su, Y. Zhang, J. Liu, D. Feng, K. Qi, et al. (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 3406-3419
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
FLS2-Mediated Responses to Ax21-Derived Peptides: Response to the Mueller et al. Commentary.
C. H. Danna, X.-C. Zhang, A. Khatri, A. F. Bent, P. C. Ronald, and F. M. Ausubel (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 3174-3176
   Full Text »    PDF »
High-throughput genomic sequencing of cassava bacterial blight strains identifies conserved effectors to target for durable resistance.
R. Bart, M. Cohn, A. Kassen, E. J. McCallum, M. Shybut, A. Petriello, K. Krasileva, D. Dahlbeck, C. Medina, T. Alicai, et al. (2012)
PNAS 109, E1972-E1979
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effector Recognition and Activation of the Arabidopsis thaliana NLR Innate Immune Receptors.
A. D. Steinbrenner, S. Goritschnig, K. V. Krasileva, K. J. Schreiber, and B. J. Staskawicz (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 77, 249-257
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ortholog Alleles at Xa3/Xa26 Locus Confer Conserved Race-Specific Resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae in Rice.
H.-J. Li, X.-H. Li, J.-H. Xiao, R. A. Wing, and S.-P. Wang (2012)
Mol Plant 5, 281-290
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Ax21 Protein Is a Cell-Cell Signal That Regulates Virulence in the Nosocomial Pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
Y. McCarthy, J. M. Dow, and R. P. Ryan (2011)
J. Bacteriol. 193, 6375-6378
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Two New Complete Genome Sequences Offer Insight into Host and Tissue Specificity of Plant Pathogenic Xanthomonas spp..
A. J. Bogdanove, R. Koebnik, H. Lu, A. Furutani, S. V. Angiuoli, P. B. Patil, M.-A. Van Sluys, R. P. Ryan, D. F. Meyer, S.-W. Han, et al. (2011)
J. Bacteriol. 193, 5450-5464
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interfamily Transfer of Tomato Ve1 Mediates Verticillium Resistance in Arabidopsis.
E. F. Fradin, A. Abd-El-Haliem, L. Masini, G. C. M. van den Berg, M. H. A. J. Joosten, and B. P. H. J. Thomma (2011)
Plant Physiology 156, 2255-2265
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Highway for War and Peace: The Secretory Pathway in Plant-Microbe Interactions.
D. Wang and X. Dong (2011)
Mol Plant
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcriptional Programming and Functional Interactions within the Phytophthora sojae RXLR Effector Repertoire.
Q. Wang, C. Han, A. O. Ferreira, X. Yu, W. Ye, S. Tripathy, S. D. Kale, B. Gu, Y. Sheng, Y. Sui, et al. (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 2064-2086
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Arabidopsis flagellin receptor FLS2 mediates the perception of Xanthomonas Ax21 secreted peptides.
C. H. Danna, Y. A. Millet, T. Koller, S.-W. Han, A. F. Bent, P. C. Ronald, and F. M. Ausubel (2011)
PNAS 108, 9286-9291
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Of PAMPs and Effectors: The Blurred PTI-ETI Dichotomy.
B. P. H. J. Thomma, T. Nurnberger, and M. H. A. J. Joosten (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 4-15
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plant and Animal Sensors of Conserved Microbial Signatures.
P. C. Ronald and B. Beutler (2010)
Science 330, 1061-1064
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern-Triggered Immunity: Veni, Vidi...?.
C. Zipfel and S. Robatzek (2010)
Plant Physiology 154, 551-554
   Full Text »    PDF »
AGC Kinase OsOxi1 Positively Regulates Basal Resistance through Suppression of OsPti1a-Mediated Negative Regulation.
H. Matsui, M. Yamazaki, M. Kishi-Kaboshi, A. Takahashi, and H. Hirochika (2010)
Plant Cell Physiol. 51, 1731-1744
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plasma Membrane Localization and Potential Endocytosis of Constitutively Expressed XA21 Proteins in Transgenic Rice.
F. Chen, M.-J. Gao, Y.-S. Miao, Y.-X. Yuan, M.-Y. Wang, Q. Li, B.-Z. Mao, L.-W. Jiang, and Z.-H. He (2010)
Mol Plant 3, 917-926
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plant Immunity Triggered by Microbial Molecular Signatures.
J. Zhang and J.-M. Zhou (2010)
Mol Plant 3, 783-793
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Activation of Plant Immune Responses by a Gain-of-Function Mutation in an Atypical Receptor-Like Kinase.
D. Bi, Y. T. Cheng, X. Li, and Y. Zhang (2010)
Plant Physiology 153, 1771-1779
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Arabidopsis thaliana Pattern Recognition Receptors for Bacterial Elongation Factor Tu and Flagellin Can Be Combined to Form Functional Chimeric Receptors.
M. Albert, A. K. Jehle, K. Mueller, C. Eisele, M. Lipschis, and G. Felix (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 19035-19042
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
An ATPase promotes autophosphorylation of the pattern recognition receptor XA21 and inhibits XA21-mediated immunity.
X. Chen, M. Chern, P. E. Canlas, D. Ruan, C. Jiang, and P. C. Ronald (2010)
PNAS 107, 8029-8034
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Conserved Threonine Residue in the Juxtamembrane Domain of the XA21 Pattern Recognition Receptor Is Critical for Kinase Autophosphorylation and XA21-mediated Immunity.
X. Chen, M. Chern, P. E. Canlas, C. Jiang, D. Ruan, P. Cao, and P. C. Ronald (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 10454-10463
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882