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Science 327 (5963): 291-295

Copyright © 2010 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Regulation of Adaptive Immunity by the Innate Immune System

Akiko Iwasaki1,*, and Ruslan Medzhitov1,2,*

Abstract: Twenty years after the proposal that pattern recognition receptors detect invasion by microbial pathogens, the field of immunology has witnessed several discoveries that have elucidated receptors and signaling pathways of microbial recognition systems and how they control the generation of T and B lymphocyte–mediated immune responses. However, there are still many fundamental questions that remain poorly understood, even though sometimes the answers are assumed to be known. Here, we discuss some of these questions, including the mechanisms by which pathogen-specific innate immune recognition activates antigen-specific adaptive immune responses and the roles of different types of innate immune recognition in host defense from infection and injury.

1 Department of Immunobiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
2 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: akiko.iwasaki{at}yale.edu (A.I.); ruslan.medzhitov{at}yale.edu (R.M.)


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TLR3-Specific Double-Stranded RNA Oligonucleotide Adjuvants Induce Dendritic Cell Cross-Presentation, CTL Responses, and Antiviral Protection.
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The Evolution and Regulation of the Mucosal Immune Complexity in the Basal Chordate Amphioxus.
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Dectin-1 diversifies Aspergillus fumigatus-specific T cell responses by inhibiting T helper type 1 CD4 T cell differentiation.
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A Novel Toll-like Receptor That Recognizes Vesicular Stomatitis Virus.
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis Directs Immunofocusing of CD8+ T Cell Responses Despite Vaccination.
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