Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 329 (5994): 953-955

Copyright © 2010 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Conserved Fungal LysM Effector Ecp6 Prevents Chitin-Triggered Immunity in Plants

Ronnie de Jonge,1 H. Peter van Esse,1 Anja Kombrink,1 Tomonori Shinya,3 Yoshitake Desaki,3 Ralph Bours,4 Sander van der Krol,4 Naoto Shibuya,3 Matthieu H. A. J. Joosten,1 Bart P. H. J. Thomma1,2,*

Abstract: Multicellular organisms activate immunity upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Chitin is the major component of fungal cell walls, and chitin oligosaccharides act as PAMPs in plant and mammalian cells. Microbial pathogens deliver effector proteins to suppress PAMP-triggered host immunity and to establish infection. Here, we show that the LysM domain–containing effector protein Ecp6 of the fungal plant pathogen Cladosporium fulvum mediates virulence through perturbation of chitin-triggered host immunity. During infection, Ecp6 sequesters chitin oligosaccharides that are released from the cell walls of invading hyphae to prevent elicitation of host immunity. This may represent a common strategy of host immune suppression by fungal pathogens, because LysM effectors are widely conserved in the fungal kingdom.

1 Laboratory of Phytopathology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands.
2 Centre for Biosystems Genomics, Post Office Box 98, 6700 AB Wageningen, Netherlands.
3 Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214–8571, Japan.
4 Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: bart.thomma{at}

Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis of Wangiella dermatitidis, A Major Cause of Phaeohyphomycosis and a Model Black Yeast Human Pathogen.
Z. Chen, D. A. Martinez, S. Gujja, S. M. Sykes, Q. Zeng, P. J. Szaniszlo, Z. Wang, and C. A. Cuomo (2014)
g3 4, 561-578
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A quantitative model of transcriptional differentiation driving host-pathogen interactions.
S. Zhu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Wang, N. Wang, Z. Wang, M. Xu, X. Su, M. Wang, S. Zhang, et al. (2013)
Brief Bioinform 14, 713-723
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Extensive chromosomal reshuffling drives evolution of virulence in an asexual pathogen.
R. de Jonge, M. D. Bolton, A. Kombrink, G. C. M. van den Berg, K. A. Yadeta, and B. P. H. J. Thomma (2013)
Genome Res. 23, 1271-1282
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Infection Structure-Specific Expression of {beta}-1,3-Glucan Synthase Is Essential for Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum graminicola and Evasion of {beta}-Glucan-Triggered Immunity in Maize.
E. Oliveira-Garcia and H. B. Deising (2013)
PLANT CELL 25, 2356-2378
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
LYM2-dependent chitin perception limits molecular flux via plasmodesmata.
C. Faulkner, E. Petutschnig, Y. Benitez-Alfonso, M. Beck, S. Robatzek, V. Lipka, and A. J. Maule (2013)
PNAS 110, 9166-9170
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Recent Progress in Understanding PAMP- and Effector-Triggered Immunity against the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.
W. Liu, J. Liu, Y. Ning, B. Ding, X. Wang, Z. Wang, and G.-L. Wang (2013)
Mol Plant 6, 605-620
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Microbial recognition and evasion of host immunity.
M. J. C. Pel and C. M. J. Pieterse (2013)
J. Exp. Bot. 64, 1237-1248
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fungal effector Ecp6 outcompetes host immune receptor for chitin binding through intrachain LysM dimerization.
A. Sanchez-Vallet, R. Saleem-Batcha, A. Kombrink, G. Hansen, D.-J. Valkenburg, B. P. Thomma, and J. R. Mesters (2013)
eLife Sci 2, e00790
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functional Characterization of CEBiP and CERK1 Homologs in Arabidopsis and Rice Reveals the Presence of Different Chitin Receptor Systems in Plants.
T. Shinya, N. Motoyama, A. Ikeda, M. Wada, K. Kamiya, M. Hayafune, H. Kaku, and N. Shibuya (2012)
Plant Cell Physiol. 53, 1696-1706
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Comparative Genome Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and Related Dermatophytes Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Infection.
D. A. Martinez, B. G. Oliver, Y. Graser, J. M. Goldberg, W. Li, N. M. Martinez-Rossi, M. Monod, E. Shelest, R. C. Barton, E. Birch, et al. (2012)
mBio 3, e00259-12
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
LYK4, a Lysin Motif Receptor-Like Kinase, Is Important for Chitin Signaling and Plant Innate Immunity in Arabidopsis.
J. Wan, K. Tanaka, X.-C. Zhang, G. H. Son, L. Brechenmacher, T. H. N. Nguyen, and G. Stacey (2012)
Plant Physiology 160, 396-406
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Quality Control Chaperones Facilitate the Biogenesis of Cf Receptor-Like Proteins Involved in Pathogen Resistance of Tomato.
T. W. H. Liebrand, P. Smit, A. Abd-El-Haliem, R. de Jonge, J. H. G. Cordewener, A. H. P. America, J. Sklenar, A. M. E. Jones, S. Robatzek, B. P. H. J. Thomma, et al. (2012)
Plant Physiology 159, 1819-1833
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chitin-Induced Dimerization Activates a Plant Immune Receptor.
T. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Song, Y. Hu, Z. Han, J. She, F. Fan, J. Wang, C. Jin, J. Chang, et al. (2012)
Science 336, 1160-1164
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Drosophila Protein Mustard Tailors the Innate Immune Response Activated by the Immune Deficiency Pathway.
Z. Wang, C. D. Berkey, and P. I. Watnick (2012)
J. Immunol. 188, 3993-4000
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Elevated Cell Wall Chitin in Candida albicans Confers Echinocandin Resistance In Vivo.
K. K. Lee, D. M. MacCallum, M. D. Jacobsen, L. A. Walker, F. C. Odds, N. A. R. Gow, and C. A. Munro (2012)
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56, 208-217
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Self versus non-self: fungal cell wall degradation in Trichoderma.
S. Gruber and V. Seidl-Seiboth (2012)
Microbiology 158, 26-34
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plant-beneficial effects of Trichoderma and of its genes.
R. Hermosa, A. Viterbo, I. Chet, and E. Monte (2012)
Microbiology 158, 17-25
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effector Biology of Plant-Associated Organisms: Concepts and Perspectives.
J. Win, A. Chaparro-Garcia, K. Belhaj, D. G. O. Saunders, K. Yoshida, S. Dong, S. Schornack, C. Zipfel, S. Robatzek, S. A. Hogenhout, et al. (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 77, 235-247
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effector-Mediated Suppression of Chitin-Triggered Immunity by Magnaporthe oryzae Is Necessary for Rice Blast Disease.
T. A. Mentlak, A. Kombrink, T. Shinya, L. S. Ryder, I. Otomo, H. Saitoh, R. Terauchi, Y. Nishizawa, N. Shibuya, B. P. H. J. Thomma, et al. (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 322-335
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Horizontal gene transfer facilitated the evolution of plant parasitic mechanisms in the oomycetes.
T. A. Richards, D. M. Soanes, M. D. M. Jones, O. Vasieva, G. Leonard, K. Paszkiewicz, P. G. Foster, N. Hall, and N. J. Talbot (2011)
PNAS 108, 15258-15263
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Analysis of Two in Planta Expressed LysM Effector Homologs from the Fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals Novel Functional Properties and Varying Contributions to Virulence on Wheat.
R. Marshall, A. Kombrink, J. Motteram, E. Loza-Reyes, J. Lucas, K. E. Hammond-Kosack, B. P. H. J. Thomma, and J. J. Rudd (2011)
Plant Physiology 156, 756-769
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Structure of the Elicitor Cerato-platanin (CP), the First Member of the CP Fungal Protein Family, Reveals a Double {psi}{beta}-Barrel Fold and Carbohydrate Binding.
A. L. de Oliveira, M. Gallo, L. Pazzagli, C. E. Benedetti, G. Cappugi, A. Scala, B. Pantera, A. Spisni, T. A. Pertinhez, and D. O. Cicero (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 17560-17568
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Analysis of subgroup C of fungal chitinases containing chitin-binding and LysM modules in the mycoparasite Trichoderma atroviride.
S. Gruber, G. Vaaje-Kolstad, F. Matarese, R. Lopez-Mondejar, C. P. Kubicek, and V. Seidl-Seiboth (2011)
Glycobiology 21, 122-133
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Of PAMPs and Effectors: The Blurred PTI-ETI Dichotomy.
B. P. H. J. Thomma, T. Nurnberger, and M. H. A. J. Joosten (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 4-15
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882