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Science 329 (5997): 1353-1355

Copyright © 2010 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Hemocyte Differentiation Mediates Innate Immune Memory in Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes

Janneth Rodrigues, Fábio André Brayner,* Luiz Carlos Alves,* Rajnikant Dixit,{dagger} Carolina Barillas-Mury{ddagger}

Abstract: Mosquito midgut invasion by ookinetes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium disrupts the barriers that normally prevent the gut microbiota from coming in direct contact with epithelial cells. This triggers a long-lived response characterized by increased abundance of granulocytes, a subpopulation of hemocytes that circulates in the insect’s hemocoel, and enhanced immunity to bacteria that indirectly reduces survival of Plasmodium parasites upon reinfection. In mosquitoes, differentiation of hemocytes was necessary and sufficient to confer innate immune memory.

Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20892, USA.

* Present address: Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães (CPqAM/Fiocruz) and Laboratório de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami–Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

{dagger} Present address: National Institute of Malaria Research, Sector-8, Dwarka, New Delhi-110077, India.

{ddagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: cbarillas{at}

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