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Science 330 (6000): 88-90

Copyright © 2010 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Pathogenomics of Culex quinquefasciatus and Meta-Analysis of Infection Responses to Diverse Pathogens

Lyric C. Bartholomay,1,* Robert M. Waterhouse,2,3,15,* George F. Mayhew,4 Corey L. Campbell,5 Kristin Michel,6 Zhen Zou,7 Jose L. Ramirez,8 Suchismita Das,8 Kanwal Alvarez,7 Peter Arensburger,9 Bart Bryant,6,7 Sinead B. Chapman,10 Yuemei Dong,8 Sara M. Erickson,4 S. H. P. Parakrama Karunaratne,11,12 Vladimir Kokoza,7 Chinnappa D. Kodira,13 Patricia Pignatelli,11 Sang Woon Shin,7 Dana L. Vanlandingham,14 Peter W. Atkinson,9 Bruce Birren,10 George K. Christophides,15 Rollie J. Clem,6 Janet Hemingway,11 Stephen Higgs,14 Karine Megy,16 Hilary Ranson,11 Evgeny M. Zdobnov,2,3,15 Alexander S. Raikhel,7 Bruce M. Christensen,4 George Dimopoulos,8 Marc A. T. Muskavitch10,17,18,{dagger}

Abstract: The mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus poses a substantial threat to human and veterinary health as a primary vector of West Nile virus (WNV), the filarial worm Wuchereria bancrofti, and an avian malaria parasite. Comparative phylogenomics revealed an expanded canonical C. quinquefasciatus immune gene repertoire compared with those of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. Transcriptomic analysis of C. quinquefasciatus genes responsive to WNV, W. bancrofti, and non-native bacteria facilitated an unprecedented meta-analysis of 25 vector-pathogen interactions involving arboviruses, filarial worms, bacteria, and malaria parasites, revealing common and distinct responses to these pathogen types in three mosquito genera. Our findings provide support for the hypothesis that mosquito-borne pathogens have evolved to evade innate immune responses in three vector mosquito species of major medical importance.

1 Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.
2 Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, 1 Rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva, CH, Switzerland.
3 Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 1 Rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva, CH, Switzerland.
4 Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
5 Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
6 Division of Biology, Arthropod Genomics Center, Molecular and Cellular Developmental Biology Program, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.
7 Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
8 W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Malaria Research Institute, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
9 Department of Entomology, Center for Disease Vector Research, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
10 The Broad Institute, Cambridge MA 02142, USA.
11 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
12 Faculty of Science and Department of Zoology, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400, LK, Sri Lanka.
13 454 Life Sciences, Branford, CT 06405, USA.
14 Pathology Department, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.
15 Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, UK.
16 European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL), Hinxton CB10 1SD Cambridge, UK.
17 Biology Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA.
18 Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: marc.muskavitch{at}

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