Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 330 (6005): 779-782

Copyright © 2010 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Regulation of Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Myelination

Ben Emery

Abstract: Despite the importance of myelin for the rapid conduction of action potentials, the molecular bases of oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system (CNS) myelination are still incompletely understood. Recent results have greatly advanced this understanding, identifying new transcriptional regulators of myelin gene expression, elucidating vital roles for microRNAs in controlling myelination, and clarifying the extracellular signaling mechanisms that orchestrate the development of myelin. Studies have also demonstrated an unexpected level of plasticity of myelin in the adult CNS. These recent advances provide new insight into how remyelination may be stimulated in demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis.

Centre for Neuroscience and Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Level 2, Alan Gilbert Building, The University of Melbourne, 161 Barry Street, Carlton South, Victoria 3053, Australia. E-mail: emeryb{at}

Mutation of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl CoA Synthase I Reveals Requirements for Isoprenoid and Cholesterol Synthesis in Oligodendrocyte Migration Arrest, Axon Wrapping, and Myelin Gene Expression.
E. S. Mathews, D. J. Mawdsley, M. Walker, J. H. Hines, M. Pozzoli, and B. Appel (2014)
J. Neurosci. 34, 3402-3412
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic evidence that Nkx2.2 and Pdgfra are major determinants of the timing of oligodendrocyte differentiation in the developing CNS.
Q. Zhu, X. Zhao, K. Zheng, H. Li, H. Huang, Z. Zhang, T. Mastracci, M. Wegner, Y. Chen, L. Sussel, et al. (2014)
Development 141, 548-555
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
E2F1 Coregulates Cell Cycle Genes and Chromatin Components during the Transition of Oligodendrocyte Progenitors from Proliferation to Differentiation.
L. Magri, V. A. Swiss, B. Jablonska, L. Lei, X. Pedre, M. Walsh, W. Zhang, V. Gallo, P. Canoll, and P. Casaccia (2014)
J. Neurosci. 34, 1481-1493
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Very large G protein-coupled receptor 1 regulates myelin-associated glycoprotein via G{alpha}s/G{alpha}q-mediated protein kinases A/C.
D. Shin, S.-T. Lin, Y.-H. Fu, and L. J. Ptacek (2013)
PNAS 110, 19101-19106
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Delayed myelination in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.
L. K. K. Pacey, I. C. Y. Xuan, S. Guan, D. Sussman, R. M. Henkelman, Y. Chen, C. Thomsen, and D. R. Hampson (2013)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 22, 3920-3930
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CaMKII{beta} Regulates Oligodendrocyte Maturation and CNS Myelination.
C. T. Waggener, J. L. Dupree, Y. Elgersma, and B. Fuss (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 10453-10458
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Loss of Branched O-Mannosyl Glycans in Astrocytes Accelerates Remyelination.
K. Kanekiyo, K.-i. Inamori, S. Kitazume, K. Sato, J. Maeda, M. Higuchi, Y. Kizuka, H. Korekane, I. Matsuo, K. Honke, et al. (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 10037-10047
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Why Adults Need New Brain Cells.
O. Bergmann and J. Frisen (2013)
Science 340, 695-696
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Stage-Specific Deletion of Olig2 Conveys Opposing Functions on Differentiation and Maturation of Oligodendrocytes.
F. Mei, H. Wang, S. Liu, J. Niu, L. Wang, Y. He, A. Etxeberria, J. R. Chan, and L. Xiao (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 8454-8462
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Oligodendroglial Expression of TrkB Independently Regulates Myelination and Progenitor Cell Proliferation.
A. W. Wong, J. Xiao, D. Kemper, T. J. Kilpatrick, and S. S. Murray (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 4947-4957
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Regulated Expression, Intracellular Trafficking, and Membrane Recycling of the P2Y-like Receptor GPR17 in Oli-neu Oligodendroglial Cells.
A. Fratangeli, E. Parmigiani, M. Fumagalli, D. Lecca, R. Benfante, M. Passafaro, A. Buffo, M. P. Abbracchio, and P. Rosa (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 5241-5256
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The p53-induced Gene Ei24 Is an Essential Component of the Basal Autophagy Pathway.
Y. G. Zhao, H. Zhao, L. Miao, L. Wang, F. Sun, and H. Zhang (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 42053-42063
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Development of white matter and reading skills.
J. D. Yeatman, R. F. Dougherty, M. Ben-Shachar, and B. A. Wandell (2012)
PNAS 109, E3045-E3053
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Myelin Gene Regulatory Factor Is Required for Maintenance of Myelin and Mature Oligodendrocyte Identity in the Adult CNS.
M. Koenning, S. Jackson, C. M. Hay, C. Faux, T. J. Kilpatrick, M. Willingham, and B. Emery (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 12528-12542
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ERK1/ERK2 MAPK Signaling is Required to Increase Myelin Thickness Independent of Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Initiation of Myelination.
A. Ishii, S. L. Fyffe-Maricich, M. Furusho, R. H. Miller, and R. Bansal (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 8855-8864
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Antagonistic Regulation of PAF1C and p-TEFb Is Required for Oligodendrocyte Differentiation.
S. Kim, J.-D. Kim, A.-Y. Chung, H.-S. Kim, Y.-S. Kim, M.-J. Kim, S. Koun, Y. M. Lee, M. Rhee, H.-C. Park, et al. (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 8201-8207
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Critical Cell-Intrinsic Role for Serum Response Factor in Glial Specification in the CNS.
P. P. Y. Lu and N. Ramanan (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 8012-8023
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
miR-221 and miR-222 promote Schwann cell proliferation and migration by targeting LASS2 after sciatic nerve injury.
B. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Wang, T. Qian, G. Ding, F. Ding, and X. Gu (2012)
J. Cell Sci. 125, 2675-2683
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
White Matter Protection in Congenital Heart Surgery.
N. Ishibashi, J. Scafidi, A. Murata, L. Korotcova, D. Zurakowski, V. Gallo, and R. A. Jonas (2012)
Circulation 125, 859-871
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Nogo signal coordinates the perfect match between myelin and axons.
A. R. Scholze and B. A. Barres (2012)
PNAS 109, 1003-1004
   Full Text »    PDF »
Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) F Is a Novel Component of Oligodendroglial RNA Transport Granules Contributing to Regulation of Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) Synthesis.
R. White, C. Gonsior, N. M. Bauer, E.-M. Kramer-Albers, H. J. Luhmann, and J. Trotter (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 1742-1754
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Electrically Driven Insulation in the Central Nervous System.
A. Araque and M. Navarrete (2011)
Science 333, 1587-1588
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Control of Local Protein Synthesis and Initial Events in Myelination by Action Potentials.
H. Wake, P. R. Lee, and R. D. Fields (2011)
Science 333, 1647-1651
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882