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Science 330 (6005): 779-782

Copyright © 2010 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Regulation of Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Myelination

Ben Emery

Abstract: Despite the importance of myelin for the rapid conduction of action potentials, the molecular bases of oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system (CNS) myelination are still incompletely understood. Recent results have greatly advanced this understanding, identifying new transcriptional regulators of myelin gene expression, elucidating vital roles for microRNAs in controlling myelination, and clarifying the extracellular signaling mechanisms that orchestrate the development of myelin. Studies have also demonstrated an unexpected level of plasticity of myelin in the adult CNS. These recent advances provide new insight into how remyelination may be stimulated in demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis.

Centre for Neuroscience and Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Level 2, Alan Gilbert Building, The University of Melbourne, 161 Barry Street, Carlton South, Victoria 3053, Australia. E-mail: emeryb{at}unimelb.edu.au


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