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Science 330 (6009): 1349-1354

Copyright © 2010 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Circadian Integration of Metabolism and Energetics

Joseph Bass1,2,3,4,*, and Joseph S. Takahashi5,6

Abstract: Circadian clocks align behavioral and biochemical processes with the day/night cycle. Nearly all vertebrate cells possess self-sustained clocks that couple endogenous rhythms with changes in cellular environment. Genetic disruption of clock genes in mice perturbs metabolic functions of specific tissues at distinct phases of the sleep/wake cycle. Circadian desynchrony, a characteristic of shift work and sleep disruption in humans, also leads to metabolic pathologies. Here, we review advances in understanding the interrelationship among circadian disruption, sleep deprivation, obesity, and diabetes and implications for rational therapeutics for these conditions.

1 Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
2 Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208–3520, USA.
3 Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208–3520, USA.
4 Center for Sleep and Circadian Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208–3520, USA.
5 Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390–9111, USA.
6 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390–9111, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: j-bass{at}

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Chronic mild stress alters circadian expressions of molecular clock genes in the liver.
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Identification of Small Molecule Activators of Cryptochrome.
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Leptin-sensitive neurons in the arcuate nuclei contribute to endogenous feeding rhythms.
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Links between metabolism and cancer.
C. V. Dang (2012)
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J Appl Physiol 112, 1291-1299
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Adverse Metabolic Consequences in Humans of Prolonged Sleep Restriction Combined with Circadian Disruption.
O. M. Buxton, S. W. Cain, S. P. O'Connor, J. H. Porter, J. F. Duffy, W. Wang, C. A. Czeisler, and S. A. Shea (2012)
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Coordination of the transcriptome and metabolome by the circadian clock.
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PNAS 109, 5541-5546
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LACTATION BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Circadian clocks as mediators of the homeorhetic response to lactation.
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2,2,2-Tribromoethanol Phase-Shifts the Circadian Rhythm of the Liver Clock in Per2::Luciferase Knockin Mice: Lack of Dependence on Anesthetic Activity.
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PNAS 108, 16843-16848
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PNAS 108, 16451-16456
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A Single Dose of Enterolactone Activates Estrogen Signaling and Regulates Expression of Circadian Clock Genes in Mice.
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J. Cell Sci. 124, 2681-2686
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Physiol Genomics 43, 818-828
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Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism by Cell Autonomous Circadian Clocks: Time to Fatten up on Information?.
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Crise de Foie, Redux?.
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Virtual Reality Technologies for Research and Education in Obesity and Diabetes: Research Needs and Opportunities.
A. G. Ershow, C. M. Peterson, W. T. Riley, A. S. Rizzo, and B. Wansink (2011)
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology 5, 212-224
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Circadian Epigenomic Remodeling and Hepatic Lipogenesis: Lessons from HDAC3.
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Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 76, 49-55
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