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Science 331 (6019): 909-912

Copyright © 2011 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

LysM-Type Mycorrhizal Receptor Recruited for Rhizobium Symbiosis in Nonlegume Parasponia

Rik Op den Camp,1 Arend Streng,1 Stéphane De Mita,1,* Qingqin Cao,1,{dagger} Elisa Polone,1,2 Wei Liu,1,3 Jetty S. S. Ammiraju,4 Dave Kudrna, Rod Wing,4 Andreas Untergasser,1,{ddagger} Ton Bisseling,1,5,§ René Geurts1

Abstract: Rhizobium–root nodule symbiosis is generally considered to be unique for legumes. However, there is one exception, and that is Parasponia. In this nonlegume, the rhizobial nodule symbiosis evolved independently and is, as in legumes, induced by rhizobium Nod factors. We used Parasponia andersonii to identify genetic constraints underlying evolution of Nod factor signaling. Part of the signaling cascade, downstream of Nod factor perception, has been recruited from the more-ancient arbuscular endomycorrhizal symbiosis. However, legume Nod factor receptors that activate this common signaling pathway are not essential for arbuscular endomycorrhizae. Here, we show that in Parasponia a single Nod factor–like receptor is indispensable for both symbiotic interactions. Therefore, we conclude that the Nod factor perception mechanism also is recruited from the widespread endomycorrhizal symbiosis.

1 Department of Plant Sciences, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands.
2 Department of Agricultural Biotechnologies, Universitá di Padova, Viale dell’Universitá 16, 35020 Legnaro (Padova), Italy.
3 Key Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.
4 University of Arizona, Plant Sciences Department, 303 Forbes Building, Tucson, AZ 85721–0036, USA.
5 College of Science, King Saud University, Post Office Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

* Present address: Institut de Recherche pour le Développement Montpellier, 911 Avenue, Agropolis BP 64501, 34394 Montpellier, cedex 5, France.

{dagger} Present address: Department of Biotechnology, Beijing University of Agriculture, No. 7 Beinong Road, Huilongguan Changping District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.

{ddagger} Present address: Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie der Universität Heidelberg Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

§ To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ton.bisseling{at}

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