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Science 331 (6023): 1409-1413

Copyright © 2011 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

CRYPTOCHROME Is a Blue-Light Sensor That Regulates Neuronal Firing Rate

Keri J. Fogle, Kelly G. Parson, Nicole A. Dahm, Todd C. Holmes*

Abstract: Light-responsive neural activity in central brain neurons is generally conveyed through opsin-based signaling from external photoreceptors. Large lateral ventral arousal neurons (lLNvs) in Drosophila melanogaster increase action potential firing within seconds in response to light in the absence of all opsin-based photoreceptors. Light-evoked changes in membrane resting potential occur in about 100 milliseconds. The light response is selective for blue wavelengths corresponding to the spectral sensitivity of CRYPTOCHROME (CRY). cry-null lines are light-unresponsive, but restored CRY expression in the lLNv rescues responsiveness. Furthermore, expression of CRY in neurons that are normally unresponsive to light confers responsiveness. The CRY-mediated light response requires a flavin redox-based mechanism and depends on potassium channel conductance, but is independent of the classical circadian CRY-TIMELESS interaction.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: tholmes{at}

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