Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

Science 331 (6024): 1559-1564

Copyright © 2011 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

A Perspective on Cancer Cell Metastasis

Christine L. Chaffer1,3,*, and Robert A. Weinberg1,2,3,*

Abstract: Metastasis causes most cancer deaths, yet this process remains one of the most enigmatic aspects of the disease. Building on new mechanistic insights emerging from recent research, we offer our perspective on the metastatic process and reflect on possible paths of future exploration. We suggest that metastasis can be portrayed as a two-phase process: The first phase involves the physical translocation of a cancer cell to a distant organ, whereas the second encompasses the ability of the cancer cell to develop into a metastatic lesion at that distant site. Although much remains to be learned about the second phase, we feel that an understanding of the first phase is now within sight, due in part to a better understanding of how cancer cell behavior can be modified by a cell-biological program called the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

1 Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
2 Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
3 Ludwig MIT Center for Molecular Oncology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: weinberg{at}wi.mit.edu (R.A.W.); chaffer{at}wi.mit.edu (C.L.C.)


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
The Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinases p38 and Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Are Involved in Hepatocyte-mediated Phenotypic Switching in Prostate Cancer Cells.
B. Ma and A. Wells (2014)
J. Biol. Chem. 289, 11153-11161
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tead2 expression levels control the subcellular distribution of Yap and Taz, zyxin expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
M. Diepenbruck, L. Waldmeier, R. Ivanek, P. Berninger, P. Arnold, E. van Nimwegen, and G. Christofori (2014)
J. Cell Sci. 127, 1523-1536
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Downregulation of FOXO3a Promotes Tumor Metastasis and Is Associated with Metastasis-Free Survival of Patients with Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
D. Ni, X. Ma, H.-Z. Li, Y. Gao, X.-T. Li, Y. Zhang, Q. Ai, P. Zhang, E.-L. Song, Q.-B. Huang, et al. (2014)
Clin. Cancer Res. 20, 1779-1790
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Circulating tumour cells: the evolving concept and the inadequacy of their enrichment by EpCAM-based methodology for basic and clinical cancer research.
P. K. Grover, A. G. Cummins, T. J. Price, I. C. Roberts-Thomson, and J. E. Hardingham (2014)
Ann. Onc.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
UTX and MLL4 Coordinately Regulate Transcriptional Programs for Cell Proliferation and Invasiveness in Breast Cancer Cells.
J.-H. Kim, A. Sharma, S. S. Dhar, S.-H. Lee, B. Gu, C.-H. Chan, H.-K. Lin, and M. G. Lee (2014)
Cancer Res. 74, 1705-1717
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role of Oncogenic K-Ras in Cancer Stem Cell Activation by Aberrant Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Signaling.
B.-S. Moon, W.-J. Jeong, J. Park, T. I. Kim, D. S. Min, and K.-Y. Choi (2014)
J Natl Cancer Inst 106, djt373
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
TRAIL-coated leukocytes that kill cancer cells in the circulation.
M. J. Mitchell, E. Wayne, K. Rana, C. B. Schaffer, and M. R. King (2014)
PNAS 111, 930-935
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Physical Biology in Cancer. 3. The role of cell glycocalyx in vascular transport of circulating tumor cells.
M. J. Mitchell and M. R. King (2014)
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 306, C89-C97
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
PD-1- and CTLA-4-Based Inhibitory Chimeric Antigen Receptors (iCARs) Divert Off-Target Immunotherapy Responses.
V. D. Fedorov, M. Themeli, and M. Sadelain (2013)
Science Translational Medicine 5, 215ra172
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcription factor and microRNA co-regulatory loops: important regulatory motifs in biological processes and diseases.
H.-M. Zhang, S. Kuang, X. Xiong, T. Gao, C. Liu, and A.-Y. Guo (2013)
Brief Bioinform
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Epithelial Plasticity: A Common Theme in Embryonic and Cancer Cells.
M. A. Nieto (2013)
Science 342, 1234850
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Twist Box Domain Is Required for Twist1-induced Prostate Cancer Metastasis.
R. P. Gajula, S. T. Chettiar, R. D. Williams, S. Thiyagarajan, Y. Kato, K. Aziz, R. Wang, N. Gandhi, A. T. Wild, F. Vesuna, et al. (2013)
Mol. Cancer Res. 11, 1387-1400
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Integrin {alpha}v{beta}3 and Fibronectin Upregulate Slug in Cancer Cells to Promote Clot Invasion and Metastasis.
L. M. Knowles, L. A. Gurski, C. Engel, J. R. Gnarra, J. K. Maranchie, and J. Pilch (2013)
Cancer Res. 73, 6175-6184
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Fragile X Protein binds mRNAs involved in cancer progression and modulates metastasis formation.
R. Luca, M. Averna, F. Zalfa, M. Vecchi, F. Bianchi, G. L. Fata, F. Del Nonno, R. Nardacci, M. Bianchi, P. Nuciforo, et al. (2013)
EMBO Mol Med. 5, 1523-1536
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
miR-192, miR-194 and miR-215: a convergent microRNA network suppressing tumor progression in renal cell carcinoma.
H. W. Z. Khella, M. Bakhet, G. Allo, M. A. S. Jewett, A. H. Girgis, A. Latif, H. Girgis, I. Von Both, G. A. Bjarnason, and G. M. Yousef (2013)
Carcinogenesis 34, 2231-2239
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Indirubin Derivative 6BIO Suppresses Metastasis.
S. Braig, C. A. Kressirer, J. Liebl, F. Bischoff, S. Zahler, L. Meijer, and A. M. Vollmar (2013)
Cancer Res. 73, 6004-6012
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Downregulation of HOPX Controls Metastatic Behavior in Sarcoma Cells and Identifies Genes Associated with Metastasis.
D. Kovarova, J. Plachy, J. Kosla, K. Trejbalova, V. Cermak, and J. Hejnar (2013)
Mol. Cancer Res. 11, 1235-1247
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Innate Immune Cell-Derived Microparticles Facilitate Hepatocarcinoma Metastasis by Transferring Integrin {alpha}M{beta}2 to Tumor Cells.
J. Ma, W. Cai, Y. Zhang, C. Huang, H. Zhang, J. Liu, K. Tang, P. Xu, F. Katirai, J. Zhang, et al. (2013)
J. Immunol. 191, 3453-3461
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular Pathways: YAP and TAZ Take Center Stage in Organ Growth and Tumorigenesis.
S. Piccolo, M. Cordenonsi, and S. Dupont (2013)
Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 4925-4930
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Circulating Tumor Cells.
V. Plaks, C. D. Koopman, and Z. Werb (2013)
Science 341, 1186-1188
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CD147, CD44, and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Signaling Pathway Cooperate to Regulate Breast Epithelial Cell Invasiveness.
G. D. Grass, L. B. Tolliver, M. Bratoeva, and B. P. Toole (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 26089-26104
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The ZEB1 pathway links glioblastoma initiation, invasion and chemoresistance.
F. A. Siebzehnrubl, D. J. Silver, B. Tugertimur, L. P. Deleyrolle, D. Siebzehnrubl, M. R. Sarkisian, K. G. Devers, A. T. Yachnis, M. D. Kupper, D. Neal, et al. (2013)
EMBO Mol Med. 5, 1196-1212
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Engineering Trojan-horse bacteria to fight cancer.
E. Ben-Jacob (2013)
Blood 122, 619-620
   Full Text »    PDF »
A Poor Prognosis Subtype of HNSCC Is Consistently Observed across Methylome, Transcriptome, and miRNome Analysis.
A. C. Jung, S. Job, S. Ledrappier, C. Macabre, J. Abecassis, A. de Reynies, and B. Wasylyk (2013)
Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 4174-4184
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Pseudophosphatase STYX modulates cell-fate decisions and cell migration by spatiotemporal regulation of ERK1/2.
V. Reiterer, D. Fey, W. Kolch, B. N. Kholodenko, and H. Farhan (2013)
PNAS 110, E2934-E2943
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Stress-Response Protein RBM3 Attenuates the Stem-like Properties of Prostate Cancer Cells by Interfering with CD44 Variant Splicing.
Y. Zeng, D. Wodzenski, D. Gao, T. Shiraishi, N. Terada, Y. Li, D. J. Vander Griend, J. Luo, C. Kong, R. H. Getzenberg, et al. (2013)
Cancer Res. 73, 4123-4133
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Targeting ROR1 Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Metastasis.
B. Cui, S. Zhang, L. Chen, J. Yu, G. F. Widhopf II, J.-F. Fecteau, L. Z. Rassenti, and T. J. Kipps (2013)
Cancer Res. 73, 3649-3660
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Flow induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular heterogeneity and biomarker modulation in 3D ovarian cancer nodules.
I. Rizvi, U. A. Gurkan, S. Tasoglu, N. Alagic, J. P. Celli, L. B. Mensah, Z. Mai, U. Demirci, and T. Hasan (2013)
PNAS 110, E1974-E1983
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Caught in the act: revealing the metastatic process by live imaging.
M. R. Fein and M. Egeblad (2013)
Dis. Model. Mech. 6, 580-593
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Silibinin Synergizes with Histone Deacetylase and DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors in Upregulating E-cadherin Expression Together with Inhibition of Migration and Invasion of Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.
S. Mateen, K. Raina, C. Agarwal, D. Chan, and R. Agarwal (2013)
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 345, 206-214
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Epoxy metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibit angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis.
G. Zhang, D. Panigrahy, L. M. Mahakian, J. Yang, J.-Y. Liu, K. S. Stephen Lee, H. I. Wettersten, A. Ulu, X. Hu, S. Tam, et al. (2013)
PNAS 110, 6530-6535
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Signaling between Transforming Growth Factor {beta} (TGF-{beta}) and Transcription Factor SNAI2 Represses Expression of MicroRNA miR-203 to Promote Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Tumor Metastasis.
X. Ding, S. I. Park, L. K. McCauley, and C.-Y. Wang (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 10241-10253
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
miR-612 suppresses the invasive-metastatic cascade in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Z.-H. Tao, J.-L. Wan, L.-Y. Zeng, L. Xie, H.-C. Sun, L.-X. Qin, L. Wang, J. Zhou, Z.-G. Ren, Y.-X. Li, et al. (2013)
J. Exp. Med. 210, 789-803
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP (epac): A Multidomain cAMP Mediator in the Regulation of Diverse Biological Functions.
M. Schmidt, F. J. Dekker, and H. Maarsingh (2013)
Pharmacol. Rev. 65, 670-709
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inflammation and Hras signaling control epithelial-mesenchymal transition during skin tumor progression.
C. E. Wong, J. S. Yu, D. A. Quigley, M. D. To, K.-Y. Jen, P. Y. Huang, R. Del Rosario, and A. Balmain (2013)
Genes & Dev. 27, 670-682
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcription Factor YY1 Contributes to Tumor Growth by Stabilizing Hypoxia Factor HIF-1{alpha} in a p53-Independent Manner.
S. Wu, V. Kasim, M. R. Kano, S. Tanaka, S. Ohba, Y. Miura, K. Miyata, X. Liu, A. Matsuhashi, U.-i. Chung, et al. (2013)
Cancer Res. 73, 1787-1799
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
MicroRNA-200a Promotes Anoikis Resistance and Metastasis by Targeting YAP1 in Human Breast Cancer.
S.-J. Yu, J.-Y. Hu, X.-Y. Kuang, J.-M. Luo, Y.-F. Hou, G.-H. Di, J. Wu, Z.-Z. Shen, H.-Y. Song, and Z.-M. Shao (2013)
Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1389-1399
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer.
M. Morgan-Fisher, U. M. Wewer, and A. Yoneda (2013)
Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry 61, 185-198
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
KLF6-SV1 Drives Breast Cancer Metastasis and Is Associated with Poor Survival.
R. Hatami, A. M. Sieuwerts, S. Izadmehr, Z. Yao, R. F. Qiao, L. Papa, M. P. Look, M. Smid, J. Ohlssen, A. C. Levine, et al. (2013)
Science Translational Medicine 5, 169ra12
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Conquering Cancer in Our Lifetime: New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Trends.
E. P. Diamandis, R. C. Bast Jr., and C. Lopez-Otin (2013)
Clin. Chem. 59, 1-3
   Full Text »    PDF »
Cell Plasticity and Heterogeneity in Cancer.
N. D. Marjanovic, R. A. Weinberg, and C. L. Chaffer (2013)
Clin. Chem. 59, 168-179
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The V-ATPase-Inhibitor Archazolid Abrogates Tumor Metastasis via Inhibition of Endocytic Activation of the Rho-GTPase Rac1.
R. M. Wiedmann, K. von Schwarzenberg, A. Palamidessi, L. Schreiner, R. Kubisch, J. Liebl, C. Schempp, D. Trauner, G. Vereb, S. Zahler, et al. (2012)
Cancer Res. 72, 5976-5987
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Critical role for lysyl oxidase in mesenchymal stem cell-driven breast cancer malignancy.
C. P. El-Haibi, G. W. Bell, J. Zhang, A. Y. Collmann, D. Wood, C. M. Scherber, E. Csizmadia, O. Mariani, C. Zhu, A. Campagne, et al. (2012)
PNAS 109, 17460-17465
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Exosomes as Biomarker Enriched Microvesicles: Characterization of Exosomal Proteins Derived from a Panel of Prostate Cell Lines with Distinct AR Phenotypes.
E. Hosseini-Beheshti, S. Pham, H. Adomat, N. Li, and E. S. Tomlinson Guns (2012)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 11, 863-885
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functional Genomics Identifies Drivers of Medulloblastoma Dissemination.
M. Mumert, A. Dubuc, X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, S. S. Chin, C. A. Pedone, M. D. Taylor, and D. W. Fults (2012)
Cancer Res. 72, 4944-4953
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Circulating Tumor Cells: Getting More from Less.
J. M. Lang, B. P. Casavant, and D. J. Beebe (2012)
Science Translational Medicine 4, 141ps13
   Full Text »    PDF »
DEDD Interacts with PI3KC3 to Activate Autophagy and Attenuate Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Breast Cancer.
Q. Lv, W. Wang, J. Xue, F. Hua, R. Mu, H. Lin, J. Yan, X. Lv, X. Chen, and Z.-W. Hu (2012)
Cancer Res. 72, 3238-3250
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CD44s Regulates the TGF-{beta}-Mediated Mesenchymal Phenotype and Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
K. Mima, H. Okabe, T. Ishimoto, H. Hayashi, S. Nakagawa, H. Kuroki, M. Watanabe, T. Beppu, M. Tamada, O. Nagano, et al. (2012)
Cancer Res. 72, 3414-3423
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GITR Ligand Provided by Thrombopoietic Cells Inhibits NK Cell Antitumor Activity.
T. Placke, H. R. Salih, and H.-G. Kopp (2012)
J. Immunol. 189, 154-160
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Met receptor tyrosine kinase signals through a cortactin-Gab1 scaffold complex, to mediate invadopodia.
C. V. Rajadurai, S. Havrylov, K. Zaoui, R. Vaillancourt, M. Stuible, M. Naujokas, D. Zuo, M. L. Tremblay, and M. Park (2012)
J. Cell Sci. 125, 2940-2953
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
gC1qR Expression in Normal and Pathologic Human Tissues: Differential Expression in Tissues of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Origin.
F. R. Dembitzer, Y. Kinoshita, D. Burstein, R. G. Phelps, M. B. Beasley, R. Garcia, N. Harpaz, S. Jaffer, S. N. Thung, P. D. Unger, et al. (2012)
Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry 60, 467-474
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Acute Activation of {beta}2-Adrenergic Receptor Regulates Focal Adhesions through {beta}Arrestin2- and p115RhoGEF Protein-mediated Activation of RhoA.
X. Ma, Y. Zhao, Y. Daaka, and Z. Nie (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 18925-18936
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
PTTG1 Oncogene Promotes Tumor Malignancy via Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Expansion of Cancer Stem Cell Population.
C.-H. Yoon, M.-J. Kim, H. Lee, R.-K. Kim, E.-J. Lim, K.-C. Yoo, G.-H. Lee, Y.-H. Cui, Y. S. Oh, M. C. Gye, et al. (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 19516-19527
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ESE3/EHF Controls Epithelial Cell Differentiation and Its Loss Leads to Prostate Tumors with Mesenchymal and Stem-like Features.
D. Albino, N. Longoni, L. Curti, M. Mello-Grand, S. Pinton, G. Civenni, G. Thalmann, G. D'Ambrosio, M. Sarti, F. Sessa, et al. (2012)
Cancer Res. 72, 2889-2900
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NHERF1 acts as a molecular switch to program metastatic behavior and organotropism via its PDZ domains.
R. A. Cardone, M. R. Greco, M. Capulli, E. J. Weinman, G. Busco, A. Bellizzi, V. Casavola, E. Antelmi, B. Ambruosi, M. E. Dell'Aquila, et al. (2012)
Mol. Biol. Cell 23, 2028-2040
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vitamin D and colon cancer.
F. Pereira, M. J. Larriba, and A. Munoz (2012)
Endocr. Relat. Cancer 19, R51-R71
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic Ablation of Cav1 Differentially Affects Melanoma Tumor Growth and Metastasis in Mice: Role of Cav1 in Shh Heterotypic Signaling and Transendothelial Migration.
F. Capozza, C. Trimmer, R. Castello-Cros, S. Katiyar, D. Whitaker-Menezes, A. Follenzi, M. Crosariol, G. Llaverias, F. Sotgia, R. G. Pestell, et al. (2012)
Cancer Res. 72, 2262-2274
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
miR-493 induction during carcinogenesis blocks metastatic settlement of colon cancer cells in liver.
K. Okamoto, T. Ishiguro, Y. Midorikawa, H. Ohata, M. Izumiya, N. Tsuchiya, A. Sato, H. Sakai, and H. Nakagama (2012)
EMBO J. 31, 1752-1763
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
sizzled function and secreted factor network dynamics.
J. Shi, H. Zhang, R. D. Dowell, and M. W. Klymkowsky (2012)
Biology Open 1, 286-294
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
YKL-40 Is Differentially Expressed in Human Embryonic Stem Cells and in Cell Progeny of the Three Germ Layers.
C. B. Brochner, J. S. Johansen, L. A. Larsen, M. Bak, H. B. Mikkelsen, A. G. Byskov, C. Y. Andersen, and K. Mollgard (2012)
Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry 60, 188-204
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus Promotes Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition through Notch-Dependent Signaling.
P. Gasperini, G. Espigol-Frigole, P. J. McCormick, O. Salvucci, D. Maric, T. S. Uldrick, M. N. Polizzotto, R. Yarchoan, and G. Tosato (2012)
Cancer Res. 72, 1157-1169
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Biophysical Indicator of Vaso-occlusive Risk in Sickle Cell Disease.
D. K. Wood, A. Soriano, L. Mahadevan, J. M. Higgins, and S. N. Bhatia (2012)
Science Translational Medicine 4, 123ra26
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Translational genomics: The challenge of developing cancer biomarkers.
J. D. Brooks (2012)
Genome Res. 22, 183-187
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The EWS/FLI Oncogene Drives Changes in Cellular Morphology, Adhesion, and Migration in Ewing Sarcoma.
A. Chaturvedi, L. M. Hoffman, A. L. Welm, S. L. Lessnick, and M. C. Beckerle (2012)
Genes & Cancer 3, 102-116
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Novel FoxM1-Caveolin Signaling Pathway Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Invasion and Metastasis.
C. Huang, Z. Qiu, L. Wang, Z. Peng, Z. Jia, C. D. Logsdon, X. Le, D. Wei, S. Huang, and K. Xie (2012)
Cancer Res. 72, 655-665
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IGDB.NSCLC: integrated genomic database of non-small cell lung cancer.
S. Kao, C.-K. Shiau, D.-L. Gu, C.-M. Ho, W.-H. Su, C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Lin, and Y.-S. Jou (2012)
Nucleic Acids Res. 40, D972-D977
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Association of Rho-associated protein kinase 1 with E-cadherin complexes is mediated by p120-catenin.
A. L. Smith, M. R. Dohn, M. V. Brown, and A. B. Reynolds (2012)
Mol. Biol. Cell 23, 99-110
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Dormant State Modulated by Osmotic Pressure Controls Clonogenicity of Prostate Cancer Cells.
M. Havard, F. Dautry, and T. Tchenio (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 44177-44186
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Host-Derived Pericytes and Sca-1+ Cells Predominate in the MART-1- Stroma Fraction of Experimentally Induced Melanoma.
J. H. Trevino-Villarreal, D. A. Cotanche, R. Sepulveda, M. E. Bortoni, O. Manneberg, T. Udagawa, and R. A. Rogers (2011)
Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry 59, 1060-1075
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular Mechanisms of Tumor Angiogenesis.
S. Ziyad and M. L. Iruela-Arispe (2011)
Genes & Cancer 2, 1085-1096
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inactivation of Mirk/Dyrk1b Kinase Targets Quiescent Pancreatic Cancer Cells.
D. Z. Ewton, J. Hu, M. Vilenchik, X. Deng, K.-c. Luk, A. Polonskaia, A. F. Hoffman, K. Zipf, J. F. Boylan, and E. A. Friedman (2011)
Mol. Cancer Ther. 10, 2104-2114
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 is a master regulator of breast cancer metastatic niche formation.
C. C.-L. Wong, D. M. Gilkes, H. Zhang, J. Chen, H. Wei, P. Chaturvedi, S. I. Fraley, C.-M. Wong, U.-S. Khoo, I. O.-L. Ng, et al. (2011)
PNAS 108, 16369-16374
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
VEGF-A and Tenascin-C produced by S100A4+ stromal cells are important for metastatic colonization.
J. T. O'Connell, H. Sugimoto, V. G. Cooke, B. A. MacDonald, A. I. Mehta, V. S. LeBleu, R. Dewar, R. M. Rocha, R. R. Brentani, M. B. Resnick, et al. (2011)
PNAS 108, 16002-16007
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
HOXC8-Dependent Cadherin 11 Expression Facilitates Breast Cancer Cell Migration through Trio and Rac.
Y. Li, Z. Guo, H. Chen, Z. Dong, Z. K. Pan, H. Ding, S.-B. Su, and S. Huang (2011)
Genes & Cancer 2, 880-888
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Cell-Based High-Content Screening Assay Reveals Activators and Inhibitors of Cancer Cell Invasion.
M. Quintavalle, L. Elia, J. H. Price, S. Heynen-Genel, and S. A. Courtneidge (2011)
Science Signaling 4, ra49
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882