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Science 335 (6070): 848-851

Copyright © 2012 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

RNA Editing Underlies Temperature Adaptation in K+ Channels from Polar Octopuses

Sandra Garrett1, and Joshua J. C. Rosenthal1,2,*

Abstract: To operate in the extreme cold, ion channels from psychrophiles must have evolved structural changes to compensate for their thermal environment. A reasonable assumption would be that the underlying adaptations lie within the encoding genes. Here, we show that delayed rectifier K+ channel genes from an Antarctic and a tropical octopus encode channels that differ at only four positions and display very similar behavior when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. However, the transcribed messenger RNAs are extensively edited, creating functional diversity. One editing site, which recodes an isoleucine to a valine in the channel’s pore, greatly accelerates gating kinetics by destabilizing the open state. This site is extensively edited in both Antarctic and Arctic species, but mostly unedited in tropical species. Thus adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing can respond to the physical environment.

1 Institute of Neurobiology, University of Puerto Rico–Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan 00901, PR.
2 Department of Biochemistry, University of Puerto Rico–Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan 00936, PR.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: rosenthal.joshua{at}

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