Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

Science 336 (6085): 1160-1164

Copyright © 2012 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Chitin-Induced Dimerization Activates a Plant Immune Receptor

Tingting Liu,1,2,3,4,* Zixu Liu,4,5,* Chuanjun Song,6 Yunfei Hu,7,8 Zhifu Han,2,3 Ji She,8 Fangfang Fan,6 Jiawei Wang,3 Changwen Jin,7,8 Junbiao Chang,6,{dagger} Jian-Min Zhou,4,9,{dagger} Jijie Chai2,3,{dagger}

Abstract: Pattern recognition receptors confer plant resistance to pathogen infection by recognizing the conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The cell surface receptor chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1 of Arabidopsis (AtCERK1) directly binds chitin through its lysine motif (LysM)–containing ectodomain (AtCERK1-ECD) to activate immune responses. The crystal structure that we solved of an AtCERK1-ECD complexed with a chitin pentamer reveals that their interaction is primarily mediated by a LysM and three chitin residues. By acting as a bivalent ligand, a chitin octamer induces AtCERK1-ECD dimerization that is inhibited by shorter chitin oligomers. A mutation attenuating chitin-induced AtCERK1-ECD dimerization or formation of nonproductive AtCERK1 dimer by overexpression of AtCERK1-ECD compromises AtCERK1-mediated signaling in plant cells. Together, our data support the notion that chitin-induced AtCERK1 dimerization is critical for its activation.

1 Graduate Program in Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.
2 Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, Beijing 100084, China.
3 School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
4 National Institute of Biological Sciences, No. 7 Science Park Road, Beijing 102206, China.
5 School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China.
6 Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.
7 Beijing NMR Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.
8 College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.
9 State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics and National Center for Plant Gene Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed: chaijj{at}mail.tsinghua.edu.cn (J.Chai); jmzhou{at}genetics.ac.cn (J.-M.Z.); changjunbiao{at}zzu.edu.cn (J.Chang)


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
An XA21-Associated Kinase (OsSERK2) Regulates Immunity Mediated by the XA21 and XA3 Immune Receptors.
X. Chen, S. Zuo, B. Schwessinger, M. Chern, P. E. Canlas, D. Ruan, X. Zhou, J. Wang, A. Daudi, C. J. Petzold, et al. (2014)
Mol Plant
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
N-Glycosylation of Effector Proteins by an {alpha}-1,3-Mannosyltransferase Is Required for the Rice Blast Fungus to Evade Host Innate Immunity.
X.-L. Chen, T. Shi, J. Yang, W. Shi, X. Gao, D. Chen, X. Xu, J.-R. Xu, N. J. Talbot, and Y.-L. Peng (2014)
PLANT CELL 26, 1360-1376
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chitin-induced activation of immune signaling by the rice receptor CEBiP relies on a unique sandwich-type dimerization.
M. Hayafune, R. Berisio, R. Marchetti, A. Silipo, M. Kayama, Y. Desaki, S. Arima, F. Squeglia, A. Ruggiero, K. Tokuyasu, et al. (2014)
PNAS 111, E404-E413
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Comparative Genomics Suggests That an Ancestral Polyploidy Event Leads to Enhanced Root Nodule Symbiosis in the Papilionoideae.
Q.-G. Li, L. Zhang, C. Li, J. M. Dunwell, and Y.-M. Zhang (2013)
Mol. Biol. Evol. 30, 2602-2611
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Structural Basis for flg22-Induced Activation of the Arabidopsis FLS2-BAK1 Immune Complex.
Y. Sun, L. Li, A. P. Macho, Z. Han, Z. Hu, C. Zipfel, J.-M. Zhou, and J. Chai (2013)
Science 342, 624-628
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
LYM2-dependent chitin perception limits molecular flux via plasmodesmata.
C. Faulkner, E. Petutschnig, Y. Benitez-Alfonso, M. Beck, S. Robatzek, V. Lipka, and A. J. Maule (2013)
PNAS 110, 9166-9170
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Microbial recognition and evasion of host immunity.
M. J. C. Pel and C. M. J. Pieterse (2013)
J. Exp. Bot. 64, 1237-1248
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fungal effector Ecp6 outcompetes host immune receptor for chitin binding through intrachain LysM dimerization.
A. Sanchez-Vallet, R. Saleem-Batcha, A. Kombrink, G. Hansen, D.-J. Valkenburg, B. P. Thomma, and J. R. Mesters (2013)
eLife Sci 2, e00790
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transglycosylation by Chitinase D from Serratia proteamaculans Improved through Altered Substrate Interactions.
J. Madhuprakash, K. Tanneeru, P. Purushotham, L. Guruprasad, and A. R. Podile (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 44619-44627
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functional Characterization of CEBiP and CERK1 Homologs in Arabidopsis and Rice Reveals the Presence of Different Chitin Receptor Systems in Plants.
T. Shinya, N. Motoyama, A. Ikeda, M. Wada, K. Kamiya, M. Hayafune, H. Kaku, and N. Shibuya (2012)
Plant Cell Physiol. 53, 1696-1706
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Legume receptors perceive the rhizobial lipochitin oligosaccharide signal molecules by direct binding.
A. Broghammer, L. Krusell, M. Blaise, J. Sauer, J. T. Sullivan, N. Maolanon, M. Vinther, A. Lorentzen, E. B. Madsen, K. J. Jensen, et al. (2012)
PNAS 109, 13859-13864
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lysin Motif-Containing Proteins LYP4 and LYP6 Play Dual Roles in Peptidoglycan and Chitin Perception in Rice Innate Immunity.
B. Liu, J.-F. Li, Y. Ao, J. Qu, Z. Li, J. Su, Y. Zhang, J. Liu, D. Feng, K. Qi, et al. (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 3406-3419
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
How Plant Lysin Motif Receptors Get Activated: Lessons Learned from Structural Biology.
R. Willmann and T. Nurnberger (2012)
Science Signaling 5, pe28
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882