Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Sci. Signal., 7 October 2008
Vol. 1, Issue 40, p. pt8
[DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.140pt8]

PRESENTATIONS

The Endothelial Glycocalyx: A Mechano-Sensor and -Transducer

John M. Tarbell1* and Eno E. Ebong1,2

1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, NY, USA.
2 Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

A presentation from the Experimental Biology 2008 Meeting, San Diego, CA, USA, 5 to 9 April 2008.

Abstract: The apical surface of endothelial cells (ECs) is decorated with various membrane-bound macromolecules that constitute the glycocalyx (GCX). As the most apical structure on the EC, the GCX senses the force (shear stress) of flowing blood and transmits the force through the cytoskeleton to sites where transduction of force to biochemical response (mechanotransduction) may occur. In this presentation, we review the structure of the GCX and experiments that demonstrate its role in mechanotransduction and vascular remodeling. Experiments with enzymes that degrade specific glycosaminoglycan components showed that the GCX mediates the shear-induced production of nitric oxide, a central process in cardiovascular control, whereas the same enzyme treatments do not affect shear-induced production of prostacyclin, another hallmark of EC mechanotransduction. These experiments reinforce the concept of distributed sites of mechanotransduction in EC. The characteristic remodeling of the EC cytoskeleton and intercellular junctions in response to shear stress are dependent on the GCX as well, and we present the experiments and theories that support the role of the GCX in these processes. The GCX is a fascinating structure whose role in EC function is only beginning to be appreciated.

* Presenter and corresponding author. E-mail: tarbell{at}ccny.cuny.edu

Citation: J. M. Tarbell, E. E. Ebong, The Endothelial Glycocalyx: A Mechano-Sensor and -Transducer. Sci. Signal. 1, pt8 (2008).

Read the Full Text


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
Pathway databases and tools for their exploitation: benefits, current limitations and challenges.
A. Bauer-Mehren, L. I. Furlong, and F. Sanz (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 5, 290
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanical regulation of cellular phenotype: implications for vascular tissue regeneration.
W. F. Liu (2012)
Cardiovasc Res 95, 215-222
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lung heparan sulfates modulate Kfc during increased vascular pressure: evidence for glycocalyx-mediated mechanotransduction.
R. O. Dull, M. Cluff, J. Kingston, D. Hill, H. Chen, S. Hoehne, D. T. Malleske, and R. Kaur (2012)
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 302, L816-L828
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanotransduction of shear in the endothelium: Basic studies and clinical implications.
B. D. Johnson, K. J. Mather, and J. P. Wallace (2011)
Vascular Medicine 16, 365-377
   Abstract »    PDF »
Shear-induced endothelial cell-cell junction inclination.
B. Melchior and J. A. Frangos (2010)
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 299, C621-C629
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882