Sci. STKE, 21 November 2006
Cell Biology From Ras to PI3K
Nancy R. Gough
Sciences STKE, AAAS, Washington, DC 20005, USA
The catalytic p110 subunits of class 1 phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) have a conserved Ras binding domain (RBD), and an interaction has been noted between Ras guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) and p110 PI3K in vitro and in overexpression systems. However, the biological relevance of this putative regulatory input has been unclear. Two groups now report a physiological role for Ras interactions with PI3K in flies and mouse neutrophils. Orme et al. created transgenic flies carrying a Dp110 (the only Drosophila p110) with mutations in the RBD that did not interact with Ras (either Ras1 or Ras2) but was otherwise biochemically normal. This Dp110RBD rescued flies from lethal deletion of Dp110; however, the rescued flies were smaller and females exhibited reduced fecundity, laying 60% fewer eggs. Dp110RBD flies also had decreased activation of Akt in response to insulin in the brain and imaginal discs and decreased basal Akt activation in the ovaries. Although the interaction with Ras does not appear essential for PI3K signaling, it does appear to maximize the response. The authors suggest that different developmental contexts may require different levels of signaling. In this case, egg production, which requires massive growth, is one process with the highest dependency on the intensity of the PI3K signal. In mammals there are multiple isoforms of PI3K, and Suire et al. showed that the p110 isoform, which is stimulated by G protein-coupled receptors through the action of G and an adaptor (in neutrophils the adaptor is p101), also appeared to be activated by Ras. They compared the neutrophil responsiveness to chemotactic agents fMLP or C5a, which are G protein-coupled receptor ligands, in cells isolated from mice in which p101 was knocked out to prevent G activation of p110 or in which the RBD of p110 was mutated (p110DASAA) to prevent Ras activation. For cells carrying either mutation, production of phosphoinositide (3,4) diphosphate or phosphoinositide (3,4,5) triphosphate, activation of Akt, and chemotaxis were decreased compared with wild-type cells or cells from mice heterozygous for p110. In vivo, recruitment of neutrophils in response to peritonitis was diminished in the mutant mice. The production of reactive oxygen species in response to agonist stimulation showed selectivity in that only the cells from the p110DASAA mice exhibited a reduction in this arm of the PI3K pathway, suggesting that one role of Ras may be to activate a separate pool of PI3K from that activated by G. These two articles provide examples in which Ras may control the intensity of the PI3K signal in one context and provide selectivity to the signaling process in another.
M. H. Orme, S. Alrubaie, G. L. Bradley, C. D. Walker, S. J. Leevers, Input from Ras is required for maximal PI(3)K signalling in Drosophila. Nat. Cell Biol. 8, 1298-1302 (2006). [PubMed]
S. Suire, A. M. Condliffe, G. J. Ferguson, C. D. Ellson, H. Guillou, K. Davidson, H. Welch, J. Coadwell, M. Turner, E. R. Chilvers, P. T. Hawkins, L. Stephens, Gs and the Ras binding domain of p110 are both important regulators of PI(3)K signalling in neutrophils. Nat. Cell. Biol. 8, 1303-1309 (2006). [PubMed]
Citation: N. R. Gough, From Ras to PI3K. Sci. STKE 2006, tw397 (2006).
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