Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Sci. STKE, 4 September 2007
Vol. 2007, Issue 402, p. pe48
[DOI: 10.1126/stke.4022007pe48]


T Cell Activation by TLRs: A Role for TLRs in the Adaptive Immune Response

Heather MacLeod1 and Lee M. Wetzler2*

1Department of Microbiology, Immunology Training Program, and
2Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Evans Biomedical Research Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

Abstract: Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation is primarily thought to affect antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by inducing an innate immune response that can subsequently activate the adaptive immune system. However, there are increasing data that demonstrate expression and activation of TLRs on T cells, thus providing evidence for a direct role for TLRs in the activation of an adaptive immune response. A study recently demonstrated that Pam3CSK {N-palmitoyl-S-[2,3-bis(palmitoloxy)-(2RS)-propyl]-Cys-Ser-Lys4}, a TLR2 agonist lipopeptide, activates T helper 1 (TH1) cells and induces interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) production, even in the absence of TLR1, which differs from its mechanism of activation of APCs. Moreover, whereas Pam3CSK-stimulated IFN-{gamma} production by TH1 cells is ablated in the absence of both myeloid differentiation marker 88 (MyD88), an adaptor protein in the TLR pathway, and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)–associated kinase–4 (IRAK4), the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are still phosphorylated. These data suggest that TLR2 activation of TH1 cells occurs through a mechanism different from that described for APCs and provides further evidence of direct TLR activation of the adaptive immune system.

*Corresponding author. E-mail, lwetzler{at}

Citation: H. MacLeod, L. M. Wetzler, T Cell Activation by TLRs: A Role for TLRs in the Adaptive Immune Response. Sci. STKE 2007, pe48 (2007).

Read the Full Text

InnateDB: facilitating systems-level analyses of the mammalian innate immune response.
D. J. Lynn, G. L. Winsor, C. Chan, N. Richard, M. R. Laird, A. Barsky, J. L. Gardy, F. M. Roche, T. H. W. Chan, N. Shah, et al. (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 4, 218
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Naive CD4 T-cell activation identifies MS patients having rapid transition to progressive MS.
E. Zastepa, L. Fitz-Gerald, M. Hallett, J. Antel, A. Bar-Or, S. Baranzini, Y. Lapierre, and D. G. Haegert (2014)
Neurology 82, 681-690
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in T cells promotes autoimmune inflammation.
J. M. Reynolds, G. J. Martinez, Y. Chung, and C. Dong (2012)
PNAS 109, 13064-13069
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
TLR2 Activation Enhances HIV Nuclear Import and Infection through T Cell Activation-Independent and -Dependent Pathways.
J. Ding and T. L. Chang (2012)
J. Immunol. 188, 992-1001
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Graft-versus-host disease: regulation by microbe-associated molecules and innate immune receptors.
O. Penack, E. Holler, and M. R. M. van den Brink (2010)
Blood 115, 1865-1872
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NOD2 regulates hematopoietic cell function during graft-versus-host disease.
O. Penack, O. M. Smith, A. Cunningham-Bussel, X. Liu, U. Rao, N. Yim, I.-K. Na, A. M. Holland, A. Ghosh, S. X. Lu, et al. (2009)
J. Exp. Med. 206, 2101-2110
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Defective innate immunity predisposes murine neonates to poor sepsis outcome but is reversed by TLR agonists.
J. L. Wynn, P. O. Scumpia, R. D. Winfield, M. J. Delano, K. Kelly-Scumpia, T. Barker, R. Ungaro, O. Levy, and L. L. Moldawer (2008)
Blood 112, 1750-1758
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Studies of SARM1 Uncover Similarities Between Immune and Neuronal Responses to Danger.
M. Dalod (2007)
Sci. STKE 2007, pe73
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882