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J. Cell Biol. 148 (5): 997-1008

Copyright © 2000 by the Rockefeller University Press.


Original Article

Sphingolipid–Cholesterol Rafts Diffuse as Small Entities in the Plasma Membrane of Mammalian Cells

A. Prallea, P. Kellera, E.-L. Florina, K. Simonsa, , and J.K.H. Hörbera

a Cell Biology and Biophysics, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Cell Biology and Biophysics, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.49-6221-38730649-6221-387569

horber{at}embl-heidelberg.de

Abstract: To probe the dynamics and size of lipid rafts in the membrane of living cells, the local diffusion of single membrane proteins was measured. A laser trap was used to confine the motion of a bead bound to a raft protein to a small area (diam ≤ 100 nm) and to measure its local diffusion by high resolution single particle tracking. Using protein constructs with identical ectodomains and different membrane regions and vice versa, we demonstrate that this method provides the viscous damping of the membrane domain in the lipid bilayer. When glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) -anchored and transmembrane proteins are raft-associated, their diffusion becomes independent of the type of membrane anchor and is significantly reduced compared with that of nonraft transmembrane proteins. Cholesterol depletion accelerates the diffusion of raft-associated proteins for transmembrane raft proteins to the level of transmembrane nonraft proteins and for GPI-anchored proteins even further. Raft-associated GPI-anchored proteins were never observed to dissociate from the raft within the measurement intervals of up to 10 min. The measurements agree with lipid rafts being cholesterol-stabilized complexes of 26 ± 13 nm in size diffusing as one entity for minutes.

Key Words: laser trap • lipid raft • protein diffusion • single particle tracking • thermal position fluctuation analysis



Abbreviations used in this paper: DIG, detergent insoluble glycolipid-enriched complex; GFP, green fluorescent protein; GPI, glycosylphosphatidylinositol; HA, influenza virus hemagglutinin; LFPGT46, artificial transmembrane YFP; PLAP, placental alkaline phosphatase; SPT, single particle tracking; TfR, transferrin receptor; TPF, two-photon fluorescence; YFP, yellow color variant of green fluorescent protein; YFPGLGPI, artificial GPI-anchored YFP.


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F-actin and Myosin II Binding Domains in Supervillin.
Y. Chen, N. Takizawa, J. L. Crowley, S. W. Oh, C. L. Gatto, T. Kambara, O. Sato, X.-d. Li, M. Ikebe, and E. J. Luna (2003)
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Scanning Probe Evolution in Biology.
J. K. H. Horber and M. J. Miles (2003)
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Visualization of Protein Compartmentation within the Plasma Membrane of Living Yeast Cells.
K. Malinska, J. Malinsky, M. Opekarova, and W. Tanner (2003)
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Lipid-dependent Recruitment of Neuronal Src to Lipid Rafts in the Brain.
A. Mukherjee, L. Arnaud, and J. A. Cooper (2003)
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Lipid rafts make for slippery platforms.
E. C. Lai (2003)
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