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J. Cell Biol. 149 (1): 223-236

Copyright © 2000 by the Rockefeller University Press.


Original Article

Extracellular-Regulated Kinase Activation and Cas/Crk Coupling Regulate Cell Migration and Suppress Apoptosis during Invasion of the Extracellular Matrix

Samuel Y. Choa, and Richard L. Klemkea

a Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037
Department of Immunology, CAL-9, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037.(858) 784-7785(858) 784-7750

klemke{at}scripps.edu

Abstract: Regulation of cell migration/invasion is important for embryonic development, immune function, and angiogenesis. However, migratory cells must also coordinately activate survival mechanisms to invade the extracellular matrix and colonize foreign sites in the body. Although invasive cells activate protective programs to survive under diverse and sometimes hostile conditions, the molecular signals that regulate these processes are poorly understood. Evidence is provided that signals that induce cell invasion also promote cell survival by suppressing apoptosis of migratory cells. Extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and molecular coupling of the adaptor proteins p130 Crk-associated substrate (CAS) and c-CrkII (Crk) represent two distinct pathways that induce cell invasion and protect cells from apoptosis in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. CAS/Crk-mediated cell invasion and survival requires activation of the small GTPase Rac, whereas ERK-induced cell invasion, but not survival requires myosin light chain kinase activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation. Uncoupling CAS from Crk or inhibition of ERK activity prevents migration and induces apoptosis of invasive cells. These findings provide molecular evidence that during invasion of the extracellular matrix, cells coordinately regulate migration and survival mechanisms through ERK activation and CAS/Crk coupling.

Key Words: cell survival • mitogen-activated protein kinases • signal transduction • three-dimensional collagen • integrins



Abbreviations used in this paper: β-gal, β-galactosidase; BrdU, bromodeoxyuridine; CAS, p130 Crk-associated substrate; Crk, c-CrkII; ECM, extracellular matrix; ERK, extracellular-regulated kinase; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HA, hemagglutinin; MEK, ERK kinase; MLC, myosin light chain; MLCK, MLC kinase; PI, propidium iodide; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; SH, Src-homology; 3-D, three-dimensional.


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