Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

PLANT CELL 13 (5): 1155-1163

Copyright © 2001 by the American Society of Plant Physiologists.

Plant Cell, Vol. 13, 1155-1163, May 2001, Copyright © 2001, American Society of Plant Physiologists Both the Extracellular Leucine-Rich Repeat Domain and the Kinase Activity of FLS2 Are Required for Flagellin Binding and Signaling in Arabidopsis Lourdes Gómez-Gómeza, Zsuzsa Bauera, and Thomas Bollera,b a Friedrich Miescher-Institut, P.O. Box 2543, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland b Botanisches Institut, Universität Basel, Helbelstrasse 1, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland Lourdes Gómez-Gómez, lourdes.gomez{at} (E-mail), 41-61-697-45-27 (fax)

In Arabidopsis, activation of defense responses by flagellin is triggered by the specific recognition of the most conserved domain of flagellin, represented by the peptide flg22, in a process involving the FLS2 gene, which encodes a leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinase. We show here that the two fls2 mutant alleles, fls2-24 and fls2-17, which were shown previously to confer insensitivity to flg22, also cause impaired flagellin binding. These features are rescued when a functional FLS2 gene is expressed as a transgene in each of the fls2 mutant plants, indicating that FLS2 is necessary for flagellin binding. The point mutation of the fls2-17 allele lies in the kinase domain. A kinase carrying this missense mutation lacked autophosphorylation activity when expressed in Escherichia coli. This indicates that kinase activity is required for binding and probably affects the stability of the flagellin receptor complex. We further show that overexpression of the kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP) in Arabidopsis results in plants that are insensitive to flagellin treatment, and we show reduced flg22 binding in these plants. Furthermore, using the yeast two-hybrid system, we show physical interaction of KAPP with the kinase domain of FLS2. These results suggest that KAPP functions as a negative regulator of the FLS2 signal transduction pathway and that the phosphorylation of FLS2 is necessary for proper binding and signaling of the flagellin receptor complex.

Sensitivity to Flg22 Is Modulated by Ligand-Induced Degradation and de Novo Synthesis of the Endogenous Flagellin-Receptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING2.
J. M. Smith, D. J. Salamango, M. E. Leslie, C. A. Collins, and A. Heese (2014)
Plant Physiology 164, 440-454
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Peptides as triggers of plant defence.
M. Albert (2013)
J. Exp. Bot. 64, 5269-5279
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deciphering the Responses of Root Border-Like Cells of Arabidopsis and Flax to Pathogen-Derived Elicitors.
B. Plancot, C. Santaella, R. Jaber, M. C. Kiefer-Meyer, M.-L. Follet-Gueye, J. Leprince, I. Gattin, C. Souc, A. Driouich, and M. Vicre-Gibouin (2013)
Plant Physiology 163, 1584-1597
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Two-Hybrid-Receptor Assay Demonstrates Heteromer Formation as Switch-On for Plant Immune Receptors.
M. Albert, A. K. Jehle, U. Furst, D. Chinchilla, T. Boller, and G. Felix (2013)
Plant Physiology 163, 1504-1509
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns-Triggered Root Responses Mediate Beneficial Rhizobacterial Recruitment in Arabidopsis.
V. Lakshmanan, S. L. Kitto, J. L. Caplan, Y.-H. Hsueh, D. B. Kearns, Y.-S. Wu, and H. P. Bais (2012)
Plant Physiology 160, 1642-1661
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role of N-Glycosylation Sites and CXC Motifs in Trafficking of Medicago truncatula Nod Factor Perception Protein to Plasma Membrane.
B. Lefebvre, D. Klaus-Heisen, A. Pietraszewska-Bogiel, C. Herve, S. Camut, M.-C. Auriac, V. Gasciolli, A. Nurisso, T. W. J. Gadella, and J. Cullimore (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 10812-10823
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Probing the Arabidopsis Flagellin Receptor: FLS2-FLS2 Association and the Contributions of Specific Domains to Signaling Function.
W. Sun, Y. Cao, K. Jansen Labby, P. Bittel, T. Boller, and A. F. Bent (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 1096-1113
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Arabidopsis RTNLB1 and RTNLB2 Reticulon-Like Proteins Regulate Intracellular Trafficking and Activity of the FLS2 Immune Receptor.
H. Y. Lee, C. H. Bowen, G. V. Popescu, H.-G. Kang, N. Kato, S. Ma, S. Dinesh-Kumar, M. Snyder, and S. C. Popescu (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 3374-3391
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Arabidopsis flagellin receptor FLS2 mediates the perception of Xanthomonas Ax21 secreted peptides.
C. H. Danna, Y. A. Millet, T. Koller, S.-W. Han, A. F. Bent, P. C. Ronald, and F. M. Ausubel (2011)
PNAS 108, 9286-9291
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Serine/threonine kinase gene Stpk-V, a key member of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21, confers powdery mildew resistance in wheat.
A. Cao, L. Xing, X. Wang, X. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Sun, C. Qian, J. Ni, Y. Chen, D. Liu, et al. (2011)
PNAS 108, 7727-7732
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Pdk1 Kinase Regulates Basal Disease Resistance Through the OsOxi1-OsPti1a Phosphorylation Cascade in Rice.
H. Matsui, A. Miyao, A. Takahashi, and H. Hirochika (2010)
Plant Cell Physiol. 51, 2082-2091
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Lysin Motif Receptor-like Kinase (LysM-RLK) CERK1 Is a Major Chitin-binding Protein in Arabidopsis thaliana and Subject to Chitin-induced Phosphorylation.
E. K. Petutschnig, A. M. E. Jones, L. Serazetdinova, U. Lipka, and V. Lipka (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 28902-28911
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plasma Membrane Localization and Potential Endocytosis of Constitutively Expressed XA21 Proteins in Transgenic Rice.
F. Chen, M.-J. Gao, Y.-S. Miao, Y.-X. Yuan, M.-Y. Wang, Q. Li, B.-Z. Mao, L.-W. Jiang, and Z.-H. He (2010)
Mol Plant 3, 917-926
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Irritable Walls: The Plant Extracellular Matrix and Signaling.
G. J. Seifert and C. Blaukopf (2010)
Plant Physiology 153, 467-478
   Full Text »    PDF »
Rapid Heteromerization and Phosphorylation of Ligand-activated Plant Transmembrane Receptors and Their Associated Kinase BAK1.
B. Schulze, T. Mentzel, A. K. Jehle, K. Mueller, S. Beeler, T. Boller, G. Felix, and D. Chinchilla (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 9444-9451
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Overproduction of the Membrane-bound Receptor-like Protein Kinase 1, RPK1, Enhances Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.
Y. Osakabe, S. Mizuno, H. Tanaka, K. Maruyama, K. Osakabe, D. Todaka, Y. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, K. Shinozaki, and K. Yamaguchi-Shinozaki (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 9190-9201
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Innate Immune Responses Activated in Arabidopsis Roots by Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns.
Y. A. Millet, C. H. Danna, N. K. Clay, W. Songnuan, M. D. Simon, D. Werck-Reichhart, and F. M. Ausubel (2010)
PLANT CELL 22, 973-990
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
OXI1 protein kinase is required for plant immunity against Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.
L. N. Petersen, R. A. Ingle, M. R. Knight, and K. J. Denby (2009)
J. Exp. Bot. 60, 3727-3735
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Proteolysis of a Negative Regulator of Innate Immunity Is Dependent on Resistance Genes in Tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana and Induced by Multiple Bacterial Effectors.
Y. Luo, K. S. Caldwell, T. Wroblewski, M. E. Wright, and R. W. Michelmore (2009)
PLANT CELL 21, 2458-2472
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Recent Advances in PAMP-Triggered Immunity against Bacteria: Pattern Recognition Receptors Watch over and Raise the Alarm.
V. Nicaise, M. Roux, and C. Zipfel (2009)
Plant Physiology 150, 1638-1647
   Full Text »    PDF »
A cotton gene encoding a polygalacturonase inhibitor-like protein is specifically expressed in petals.
H. Shi, L. Zhu, Y. Zhou, G. Li, L. Chen, and X. Li (2009)
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin 41, 316-324
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Soybean Nodule Autoregulation Receptor Kinase Phosphorylates Two Kinase-associated Protein Phosphatases in Vitro.
A. Miyahara, T. A. Hirani, M. Oakes, A. Kereszt, B. Kobe, M. A. Djordjevic, and P. M. Gresshoff (2008)
J. Biol. Chem. 283, 25381-25391
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plant Receptors Go Endosomal: A Moving View on Signal Transduction.
N. Geldner and S. Robatzek (2008)
Plant Physiology 147, 1565-1574
   Full Text »    PDF »
The Arabidopsis Kinase-Associated Protein Phosphatase Regulates Adaptation to Na+ Stress.
Y. Manabe, R. A. Bressan, T. Wang, F. Li, H. Koiwa, I. Sokolchik, X. Li, and A. Maggio (2008)
Plant Physiology 146, 612-622
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A High Content in Lipid-modified Peripheral Proteins and Integral Receptor Kinases Features in the Arabidopsis Plasma Membrane Proteome.
A. Marmagne, M. Ferro, T. Meinnel, C. Bruley, L. Kuhn, J. Garin, H. Barbier-Brygoo, and G. Ephritikhine (2007)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 6, 1980-1996
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Signalling through kinase-defective domains: the prevalence of atypical receptor-like kinases in plants.
E. Castells and J. M. Casacuberta (2007)
J. Exp. Bot.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular Dissection of Endosomal Compartments in Plants.
J. Muller, U. Mettbach, D. Menzel, and J. Samaj (2007)
Plant Physiology 145, 293-304
   Full Text »    PDF »
Identification and Mutational Analysis of Arabidopsis FLS2 Leucine-Rich Repeat Domain Residues That Contribute to Flagellin Perception.
F. M. Dunning, W. Sun, K. L. Jansen, L. Helft, and A. F. Bent (2007)
PLANT CELL 19, 3297-3313
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Arabidopsis Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase MKK3 Is Upstream of Group C Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Participates in Pathogen Signaling.
R. Doczi, G. Brader, A. Pettko-Szandtner, I. Rajh, A. Djamei, A. Pitzschke, M. Teige, and H. Hirt (2007)
PLANT CELL 19, 3266-3279
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The receptor-like kinase SERK3/BAK1 is a central regulator of innate immunity in plants.
A. Heese, D. R. Hann, S. Gimenez-Ibanez, A. M. E. Jones, K. He, J. Li, J. I. Schroeder, S. C. Peck, and J. P. Rathjen (2007)
PNAS 104, 12217-12222
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cowpea Chloroplastic ATP Synthase Is the Source of Multiple Plant Defense Elicitors during Insect Herbivory.
E. A. Schmelz, S. LeClere, M. J. Carroll, H. T. Alborn, and P. E.A. Teal (2007)
Plant Physiology 144, 793-805
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chemical Interference of Pathogen-associated Molecular Pattern-triggered Immune Responses in Arabidopsis Reveals a Potential Role for Fatty-acid Synthase Type II Complex-derived Lipid Signals.
M. Serrano, S. Robatzek, M. Torres, E. Kombrink, I. E. Somssich, M. Robinson, and P. Schulze-Lefert (2007)
J. Biol. Chem. 282, 6803-6811
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
DAWDLE, a Forkhead-Associated Domain Gene, Regulates Multiple Aspects of Plant Development.
E. R. Morris, D. Chevalier, and J. C. Walker (2006)
Plant Physiology 141, 932-941
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ligand-induced endocytosis of the pattern recognition receptor FLS2 in Arabidopsis..
S. Robatzek, D. Chinchilla, and T. Boller (2006)
Genes & Dev. 20, 537-542
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
R. Karlova, S. Boeren, E. Russinova, J. Aker, J. Vervoort, and S. de Vries (2006)
PLANT CELL 18, 626-638
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Arabidopsis Receptor Kinase FLS2 Binds flg22 and Determines the Specificity of Flagellin Perception.
D. Chinchilla, Z. Bauer, M. Regenass, T. Boller, and G. Felix (2006)
PLANT CELL 18, 465-476
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Roles of Specific Amino Acids in the N Terminus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Flagellin and of Flagellin Glycosylation in the Innate Immune Response.
A. Verma, S. K. Arora, S. K. Kuravi, and R. Ramphal (2005)
Infect. Immun. 73, 8237-8246
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein PGIP2 of Phaseolus vulgaris Has Evolved a Mixed Mode of Inhibition of Endopolygalacturonase PG1 of Botrytis cinerea.
F. Sicilia, J. Fernandez-Recio, C. Caprari, G. De Lorenzo, D. Tsernoglou, F. Cervone, and L. Federici (2005)
Plant Physiology 139, 1380-1388
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Rapid Phosphorylation of a Syntaxin during the Avr9/Cf-9-Race-Specific Signaling Pathway.
A. Heese, A. A. Ludwig, and J. D.G. Jones (2005)
Plant Physiology 138, 2406-2416
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 Function, Internalization, and Turnover Are Dependent on the Extracellular Crinkly Repeat Domain.
M. L. Gifford, F. C. Robertson, D. C. Soares, and G. C. Ingram (2005)
PLANT CELL 17, 1154-1166
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase1 Is a Key Membrane-Bound Regulator of Abscisic Acid Early Signaling in Arabidopsis.
Y. Osakabe, K. Maruyama, M. Seki, M. Satou, K. Shinozaki, and K. Yamaguchi-Shinozaki (2005)
PLANT CELL 17, 1105-1119
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Structure-Function Analysis of Cf-9, a Receptor-Like Protein with Extracytoplasmic Leucine-Rich Repeats.
R. A.L. van der Hoorn, B. B.H. Wulff, S. Rivas, M. C. Durrant, A. van der Ploeg, P. J.G.M. de Wit, and J. D.G. Jones (2005)
PLANT CELL 17, 1000-1015
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Wall-associated Kinase WAK1 Interacts with Cell Wall Pectins in a Calcium-induced Conformation.
A. Decreux and J. Messiaen (2005)
Plant Cell Physiol. 46, 268-278
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
RAR1 Positively Controls Steady State Levels of Barley MLA Resistance Proteins and Enables Sufficient MLA6 Accumulation for Effective Resistance.
S. Bieri, S. Mauch, Q.-H. Shen, J. Peart, A. Devoto, C. Casais, F. Ceron, S. Schulze, H.-H. Steinbiss, K. Shirasu, et al. (2004)
PLANT CELL 16, 3480-3495
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Characterization of the Complex Locus of Bean Encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Proteins Reveals Subfunctionalization for Defense against Fungi and Insects.
R. D'Ovidio, A. Raiola, C. Capodicasa, A. Devoto, D. Pontiggia, S. Roberti, R. Galletti, E. Conti, D. O'Sullivan, and G. De Lorenzo (2004)
Plant Physiology 135, 2424-2435
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Transcriptional Innate Immune Response to flg22. Interplay and Overlap with Avr Gene-Dependent Defense Responses and Bacterial Pathogenesis.
L. Navarro, C. Zipfel, O. Rowland, I. Keller, S. Robatzek, T. Boller, and J. D.G. Jones (2004)
Plant Physiology 135, 1113-1128
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plant Hormone Binding Sites.
R. NAPIER (2004)
Ann. Bot. 93, 227-233
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
LRR-containing receptors regulating plant development and defense.
A. Dievart and S. E. Clark (2004)
Development 131, 251-261
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Direct Activation of MIK, a Germinal Center Kinase (GCK)-like Kinase, by MARK, a Maize Atypical Receptor Kinase, Suggests a New Mechanism for Signaling through Kinase-dead Receptors.
B. Llompart, E. Castells, A. Rio, R. Roca, A. Ferrando, V. Stiefel, P. Puigdomenech, and J. M. Casacuberta (2003)
J. Biol. Chem. 278, 48105-48111
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Flagellin Glycosylation Island in Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea and Its Role in Host Specificity.
K. Takeuchi, F. Taguchi, Y. Inagaki, K. Toyoda, T. Shiraishi, and Y. Ichinose (2003)
J. Bacteriol. 185, 6658-6665
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Toll-like Receptor 5-Mediated Corneal Epithelial Inflammatory Responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Flagellin.
J. Zhang, K. Xu, B. Ambati, and F.-S. X. Yu (2003)
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4247-4254
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interaction of Calmodulin, a Sorting Nexin and Kinase-Associated Protein Phosphatase with the Brassica oleracea S Locus Receptor Kinase.
V. Vanoosthuyse, G. Tichtinsky, C. Dumas, T. Gaude, and J. M. Cock (2003)
Plant Physiology 133, 919-929
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NMR structure of the forkhead-associated domain from the Arabidopsis receptor kinase-associated protein phosphatase.
G.-i. Lee, Z. Ding, J. C. Walker, and S. R. Van Doren (2003)
PNAS 100, 11261-11266
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The crystal structure of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), a leucine-rich repeat protein involved in plant defense.
A. Di Matteo, L. Federici, B. Mattei, G. Salvi, K. A. Johnson, C. Savino, G. De Lorenzo, D. Tsernoglou, and F. Cervone (2003)
PNAS 100, 10124-10128
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The receptor kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2 associate in pollen and when expressed in yeast, but dissociate in the presence of style extract.
D. Wengier, I. Valsecchi, M. L. Cabanas, W.-h. Tang, S. McCormick, and J. Muschietti (2003)
PNAS 100, 6860-6865
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Cysteine-Rich Extracellular Protein, LAT52, Interacts with the Extracellular Domain of the Pollen Receptor Kinase LePRK2.
W. Tang, I. Ezcurra, J. Muschietti, and S. McCormick (2002)
PLANT CELL 14, 2277-2287
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plant receptor kinases: Systemin receptor identified.
Y. Yin, D. Wu, and J. Chory (2002)
PNAS 99, 9090-9092
   Full Text »    PDF »
The Subtilisin-Like Serine Protease SDD1 Mediates Cell-to-Cell Signaling during Arabidopsis Stomatal Development.
U. von Groll, D. Berger, and T. Altmann (2002)
PLANT CELL 14, 1527-1539
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Self-Incompatibility in the Brassicaceae: Receptor-Ligand Signaling and Cell-to-Cell Communication.
A. Kachroo, M. E. Nasrallah, and J. B. Nasrallah (2002)
PLANT CELL 14, S227-S238
   Full Text »    PDF »
Plant Receptor-Like Kinase Gene Family: Diversity, Function, and Signaling.
S.-H. Shiu and A. B. Bleecker (2001)
Sci. STKE 2001, re22
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Sensitivity of Different Ecotypes and Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana toward the Bacterial Elicitor Flagellin Correlates with the Presence of Receptor-binding Sites.
Z. Bauer, L. Gomez-Gomez, T. Boller, and G. Felix (2001)
J. Biol. Chem. 276, 45669-45676
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Receptor-like kinases from Arabidopsis form a monophyletic gene family related to animal receptor kinases.
S.-H. Shiu and A. B. Bleecker (2001)
PNAS 98, 10763-10768
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Receptor-like kinases from Arabidopsis form a monophyletic gene family related to animal receptor kinases.
S.-H. Shiu and A. B. Bleecker (2001)
PNAS 98, 10763-10768
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882