Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

Plant Physiology 127 (3): 1044-1052

Copyright © 2001 by the American Society of Plant Physiologists.

Plant Physiol, November 2001, Vol. 127, pp. 1044-1052

Chloroplast Transcription at Different Light Intensities. Glutathione-Mediated Phosphorylation of the Major RNA Polymerase Involved in Redox-Regulated Organellar Gene Expression1

Elena Baena-González,2 Sacha Baginsky,23 Paula Mulo, Holger Summer, Eva-Mari Aro, and Gerhard Link*

Department of Biology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland (E.B.-G., P.M., E.-M.A.); and Plant Cell Physiology, University of Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany (S.B., H.S., G.L.)

Previous studies using purified RNA polymerase from mustard (Sinapis alba) chloroplasts showed control of transcription by an associated protein kinase. This kinase was found to respond to reversible thiol/disulfide formation mediated by glutathione (GSH), although at concentrations exceeding those thought to exist in vivo. In the present study, several lines of evidence are presented to substantiate the functioning of this regulation mechanism, also in vivo: (a) Studies on the polymerase-associated transcription kinase revealed that at appropriate ATP levels, GSH concentrations similar to those in vivo are sufficient to modulate the kinase activity; (b) GSH measurements from isolated mustard chloroplasts showed considerable differences in response to light intensity; (c) this was reflected by run-on transcription rates in isolated chloroplasts that were generally higher if organelles were prepared from seedlings incubated under high-light as compared with growth-light conditions; (d) the notion of a general transcriptional switch was strengthened by in vitro experiments showing that the kinase not only affects the transcription of a photosynthetic gene (psbA) but also that of a non-photosynthetic gene (trnQ); and (e) the polymerase-kinase complex revealed specific differences in the phosphorylation state of polypeptides depending on the light intensity to which the seedlings had been exposed prior to chloroplast isolation. Taken together, these data are consistent with GSH and phosphorylation-dependent regulation of chloroplast transcription in vivo.


1 This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (grant to E.-M.A.), by the Deutsche Akademische Austausdienst, by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and by the Fonds der Chemischen Industrie (to G.L.).

2 These authors contributed equally to the paper.

3 Present address: Plant Science Institute, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

* Corresponding author; e-mail Gerhard.Link{at}ruhr-uni-bochum.de; fax 49-234-3214-188.

© 2001 American Society of Plant Physiologists

THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
Evolutionary rewiring: a modified prokaryotic gene-regulatory pathway in chloroplasts.
S. Puthiyaveetil, I. M. Ibrahim, and J. F. Allen (2013)
Phil Trans R Soc B 368, 20120260
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Photosynthetic control of electron transport and the regulation of gene expression.
C. H. Foyer, J. Neukermans, G. Queval, G. Noctor, and J. Harbinson (2012)
J. Exp. Bot. 63, 1637-1661
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcriptional Control of Photosynthesis Genes: The Evolutionarily Conserved Regulatory Mechanism in Plastid Genome Function.
S. Puthiyaveetil, I. M. Ibrahim, B. Jelicic, A. Tomasic, H. Fulgosi, and J. F. Allen (2010)
Genome Biol Evol 2, 888-896
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Glutathione S-Transferase Regulated by Light and Hormones Participates in the Modulation of Arabidopsis Seedling Development.
H.-W. Jiang, M.-J. Liu, I.-C. Chen, C.-H. Huang, L.-Y. Chao, and H.-L. Hsieh (2010)
Plant Physiology 154, 1646-1658
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Role of Phosphorylation in Redox Regulation of Photosynthesis Genes psaA and psbA during Photosynthetic Acclimation of Mustard.
S. Steiner, L. Dietzel, Y. Schroter, V. Fey, R. Wagner, and T. Pfannschmidt (2009)
Mol Plant 2, 416-429
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nucleus-encoded plastid sigma factor SIG3 transcribes specifically the psbN gene in plastids.
W. Zghidi, L. Merendino, A. Cottet, R. Mache, and S. Lerbs-Mache (2007)
Nucleic Acids Res. 35, 455-464
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chloroplast-mediated regulation of nuclear genes in Arabidopsis thaliana in the absence of light stress.
M. Piippo, Y. Allahverdiyeva, V. Paakkarinen, U.-M. Suoranta, N. Battchikova, and E.-M. Aro (2006)
Physiol Genomics 25, 142-152
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Induction of PR-1 Accumulation Accompanied by Runaway Cell Death in the lsd1 Mutant of Arabidopsis is Dependent on Glutathione Levels but Independent of the Redox State of Glutathione.
K. Senda and K. Ogawa (2004)
Plant Cell Physiol. 45, 1578-1585
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The glutathione system as a stress marker in plant ecophysiology: is a stress-response concept valid?.
M. Tausz, H. Sircelj, and D. Grill (2004)
J. Exp. Bot. 55, 1955-1962
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Multiple-Stress Responsive Plastid Sigma Factor, SIG5, Directs Activation of the psbD Blue Light-Responsive Promoter (BLRP) in Arabidopsis thaliana.
A. Nagashima, M. Hanaoka, T. Shikanai, M. Fujiwara, K. Kanamaru, H. Takahashi, and K. Tanaka (2004)
Plant Cell Physiol. 45, 357-368
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Activity of the Chloroplastic Ndh Complex Is Regulated by Phosphorylation of the NDH-F Subunit.
H. R. Lascano, L. M. Casano, M. Martin, and B. Sabater (2003)
Plant Physiology 132, 256-262
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882