Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

Science 286 (5440): 790-793

Copyright © 1999 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Apoptosis of T Cells Mediated by Ca2+-Induced Release of the Transcription Factor MEF2

Hong-Duk Youn, 1 Luo Sun, 1 Ron Prywes, 4 Jun O. Liu 123*

T cell receptor (TCR)-induced apoptosis of thymocytes is mediated by calcium-dependent expression of the steroid receptors Nur77 and Nor1. Nur77 expression is controlled by the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), but how MEF2 is activated by calcium signaling is still obscure. Cabin1, a calcineurin inhibitor, was found to regulate MEF2. MEF2 was normally sequestered by Cabin1 in a transcriptionally inactive state. TCR engagement led to an increase in intracellular calcium concentration and the dissociation of MEF2 from Cabin1, as a result of competitive binding of activated calmodulin to Cabin1. The interplay between Cabin1, MEF2, and calmodulin defines a distinct signaling pathway from the TCR to the Nur77 promoter during T cell apoptosis.

1 Center for Cancer Research,
2 Department of Biology,
3 Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
4 Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.
*   To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Junliu{at}mit.edu


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
NR4A1-mediated apoptosis suppresses lymphomagenesis and is associated with a favorable cancer-specific survival in patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas.
A. J. A. Deutsch, B. Rinner, K. Wenzl, M. Pichler, K. Troppan, E. Steinbauer, D. Schwarzenbacher, S. Reitter, J. Feichtinger, S. Tierling, et al. (2014)
Blood 123, 2367-2377
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Modulation of lysine methylation in myocyte enhancer factor 2 during skeletal muscle cell differentiation.
J. Choi, H. Jang, H. Kim, J.-H. Lee, S.-T. Kim, E.-J. Cho, and H.-D. Youn (2014)
Nucleic Acids Res. 42, 224-234
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Perturbation of Transcription Factor Nur77 Expression Mediated by Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2D (MEF2D) Regulates Dopaminergic Neuron Loss in Response to 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP).
M. P. Mount, Y. Zhang, M. Amini, S. Callaghan, J. Kulczycki, Z. Mao, R. S. Slack, H. Anisman, and D. S. Park (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 14362-14371
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphorylation and ubiquitination-dependent degradation of CABIN1 releases p53 for transactivation upon genotoxic stress.
S.-Y. Choi, H. Jang, J.-S. Roe, S.-T. Kim, E.-J. Cho, and H.-D. Youn (2013)
Nucleic Acids Res. 41, 2180-2190
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human CABIN1 Is a Functional Member of the Human HIRA/UBN1/ASF1a Histone H3.3 Chaperone Complex.
T. S. Rai, A. Puri, T. McBryan, J. Hoffman, Y. Tang, N. A. Pchelintsev, J. van Tuyn, R. Marmorstein, D. C. Schultz, and P. D. Adams (2011)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 31, 4107-4118
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Calcineurin-Independent Mechanism of Angiogenesis Inhibition by a Nonimmunosuppressive Cyclosporin A Analog.
B. A. Nacev, W.-K. Low, Z. Huang, T. T. Su, Z. Su, H. Alkuraya, D. Kasuga, W. Sun, M. Trager, M. Braun, et al. (2011)
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 338, 466-475
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Local interstitial delivery of z-butylidenephthalide by polymer wafers against malignant human gliomas.
H.-J. Harn, S.-Z. Lin, P.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Liu, P.-Y. Liu, L.-F. Chang, S.-Y. Yen, D.-K. Hsieh, F.-C. Liu, D.-F. Tai, et al. (2011)
Neuro Oncology 13, 635-648
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Essential Function for Serum Response Factor in T-Cell Development Reflects Its Specific Coupling to Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling.
A. Mylona, R. Nicolas, D. Maurice, M. Sargent, D. Tuil, D. Daegelen, R. Treisman, and P. Costello (2011)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 31, 267-276
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Transcriptional repression of Kruppel like factor-2 by the adaptor protein p66shc.
A. Kumar, T. A. Hoffman, J. DeRicco, A. Naqvi, M. K. Jain, and K. Irani (2009)
FASEB J 23, 4344-4352
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Calcineurin Inhibitor Protein (CAIN) Attenuates Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Endocytosis and Signaling.
L. T. Ferreira, L. B. Dale, F. M. Ribeiro, A. V. Babwah, M. Pampillo, and S. S. G. Ferguson (2009)
J. Biol. Chem. 284, 28986-28994
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Direct Interaction between Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (MEF2) and Protein Phosphatase 1{alpha} Represses MEF2-Dependent Gene Expression.
R. L. S. Perry, C. Yang, N. Soora, J. Salma, M. Marback, L. Naghibi, H. Ilyas, J. Chan, J. W. Gordon, and J. C. McDermott (2009)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 29, 3355-3366
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Protein Kinase A Represses Skeletal Myogenesis by Targeting Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2D.
M. Du, R. L. S. Perry, N. B. Nowacki, J. W. Gordon, J. Salma, J. Zhao, A. Aziz, J. Chan, K. W. M. Siu, and J. C. McDermott (2008)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 28, 2952-2970
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2A Is Transcriptionally Autoregulated.
B. Ramachandran, G. Yu, S. Li, B. Zhu, and T. Gulick (2008)
J. Biol. Chem. 283, 10318-10329
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ca2+-Operated Transcriptional Networks: Molecular Mechanisms and In Vivo Models.
B. Mellstrom, M. Savignac, R. Gomez-Villafuertes, and J. R. Naranjo (2008)
Physiol Rev 88, 421-449
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
MEF2: a central regulator of diverse developmental programs.
M. J. Potthoff and E. N. Olson (2007)
Development 134, 4131-4140
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cabin1 Represses MEF2 Transcriptional Activity by Association with a Methyltransferase, SUV39H1.
H. Jang, D.-E. Choi, H. Kim, E.-J. Cho, and H.-D. Youn (2007)
J. Biol. Chem. 282, 11172-11179
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Comprehensive analysis of homeobox genes in Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines identifies dysregulated expression of HOXB9 mediated via ERK5 signaling and BMI1.
S. Nagel, C. Burek, L. Venturini, M. Scherr, H. Quentmeier, C. Meyer, A. Rosenwald, H. G. Drexler, and R. A. F. MacLeod (2007)
Blood 109, 3015-3023
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Myocyte Enhancer Factors 2A and 2C Induce Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Transgenic Mice.
J. Xu, N. L. Gong, I. Bodi, B. J. Aronow, P. H. Backx, and J. D. Molkentin (2006)
J. Biol. Chem. 281, 9152-9162
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differential contributions of Caenorhabditis elegans histone deacetylases to huntingtin polyglutamine toxicity..
E. A. Bates, M. Victor, A. K. Jones, Y. Shi, and A. C. Hart (2006)
J. Neurosci. 26, 2830-2838
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A calcium-regulated MEF2 sumoylation switch controls postsynaptic differentiation..
A. Shalizi, B. Gaudilliere, Z. Yuan, J. Stegmuller, T. Shirogane, Q. Ge, Y. Tan, B. Schulman, J. W. Harper, and A. Bonni (2006)
Science 311, 1012-1017
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Control of MEF2 Transcriptional Activity by Coordinated Phosphorylation and Sumoylation.
S. Gregoire, A. M. Tremblay, L. Xiao, Q. Yang, K. Ma, J. Nie, Z. Mao, Z. Wu, V. Giguere, and X.-J. Yang (2006)
J. Biol. Chem. 281, 4423-4433
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Control of Cardiac Growth by Histone Acetylation/Deacetylation.
J. Backs and E. N. Olson (2006)
Circ. Res. 98, 15-24
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV regulates nuclear export of Cabin1 during T-cell activation.
F. Pan, A. R. Means, and J. O. Liu (2005)
EMBO J. 24, 2104-2113
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 Acetylation by p300 Enhances Its DNA Binding Activity, Transcriptional Activity, and Myogenic Differentiation.
K. Ma, J. K. L. Chan, G. Zhu, and Z. Wu (2005)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 25, 3575-3582
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Association with Class IIa Histone Deacetylases Upregulates the Sumoylation of MEF2 Transcription Factors.
S. Gregoire and X.-J. Yang (2005)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 25, 2273-2287
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 7 by protein kinase D mediates T cell receptor-induced Nur77 expression and apoptosis.
F. Dequiedt, J. Van Lint, E. Lecomte, V. Van Duppen, T. Seufferlein, J. R. Vandenheede, R. Wattiez, and R. Kettmann (2005)
J. Exp. Med. 201, 793-804
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Yins of T Cell Activation.
J. O. Liu (2005)
Sci. STKE 2005, re1
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of MEF2-regulated genes during muscle differentiation.
J. Paris, C. Virtanen, Z. Lu, and M. Takahashi (2004)
Physiol Genomics 20, 143-151
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Caspase-mediated Specific Cleavage of Human Histone Deacetylase 4.
F. Liu, M. Dowling, X.-J. Yang, and G. D. Kao (2004)
J. Biol. Chem. 279, 34537-34546
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Caspase-dependent Regulation of Histone Deacetylase 4 Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Shuttling Promotes Apoptosis.
G. Paroni, M. Mizzau, C. Henderson, G. Del Sal, C. Schneider, and C. Brancolini (2004)
Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 2804-2818
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 Mediates Calcium-dependent Transcription of the Interleukin-2 Gene in T Lymphocytes: A CALCIUM SIGNALING MODULE THAT IS DISTINCT FROM BUT COLLABORATES WITH THE NUCLEAR FACTOR OF ACTIVATED T CELLS (NFAT).
F. Pan, Z. Ye, L. Cheng, and J. O. Liu (2004)
J. Biol. Chem. 279, 14477-14480
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
TGF-{beta}-activated Smad3 represses MEF2-dependent transcription in myogenic differentiation.
D. Liu, J. S. Kang, and R. Derynck (2004)
EMBO J. 23, 1557-1566
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Critical Role of Calpain-mediated Cleavage of Calcineurin in Excitotoxic Neurodegeneration.
H.-Y. Wu, K. Tomizawa, Y. Oda, F.-Y. Wei, Y.-F. Lu, M. Matsushita, S.-T. Li, A. Moriwaki, and H. Matsui (2004)
J. Biol. Chem. 279, 4929-4940
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The AF-1 Domain of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor NOR-1 Mediates Trans-activation, Coactivator Recruitment, and Activation by the Purine Anti-metabolite 6-Mercaptopurine.
K. D. S. A. Wansa, J. M. Harris, G. Yan, P. Ordentlich, and G. E. O. Muscat (2003)
J. Biol. Chem. 278, 24776-24790
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nur77 Is Involved in Caspase-independent Macrophage Cell Death.
S. O. Kim, K. Ono, P. S. Tobias, and J. Han (2003)
J. Exp. Med. 197, 1441-1452
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Direct Interaction of Ca2+/Calmodulin Inhibits Histone Deacetylase 5 Repressor Core Binding to Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2.
I. Berger, C. Bieniossek, C. Schaffitzel, M. Hassler, E. Santelli, and T. J. Richmond (2003)
J. Biol. Chem. 278, 17625-17635
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphorylation Motifs Regulating the Stability and Function of Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2A.
D. M. Cox, M. Du, M. Marback, E. C. C. Yang, J. Chan, K. W. M. Siu, and J. C. McDermott (2003)
J. Biol. Chem. 278, 15297-15303
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ligation of Retinoic Acid Receptor {alpha} Regulates Negative Selection of Thymocytes by Inhibiting Both DNA Binding of nur77 and Synthesis of Bim.
E. Szegezdi, I. Kiss, A. Simon, B. Blasko, U. Reichert, S. Michel, M. Sandor, L. Fesus, and Z. Szondy (2003)
J. Immunol. 170, 3577-3584
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Excitation-Transcription Coupling: Signaling by Ion Channels to the Nucleus.
R. Dolmetsch (2003)
Sci. STKE 2003, pe4
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Comparative Genome and Proteome Analysis of Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster.
E. M. Zdobnov, C. von Mering, I. Letunic, D. Torrents, M. Suyama, R. R. Copley, G. K. Christophides, D. Thomasova, R. A. Holt, G. M. Subramanian, et al. (2002)
Science 298, 149-159
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Activation Function-1 Domain of Nur77/NR4A1 Mediates Trans-activation, Cell Specificity, and Coactivator Recruitment.
K. D. S. A. Wansa, J. M. Harris, and G. E. O. Muscat (2002)
J. Biol. Chem. 277, 33001-33011
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Calpain-dependent cleavage of cain/cabin1 activates calcineurin to mediate calcium-triggered cell death.
M.-J. Kim, D.-G. Jo, G.-S. Hong, B. J. Kim, M. Lai, D.-H. Cho, K.-W. Kim, A. Bandyopadhyay, Y.-M. Hong, D. H. Kim, et al. (2002)
PNAS 99, 9870-9875
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ionomycin-activated Calpain Triggers Apoptosis. A PROBABLE ROLE FOR Bcl-2 FAMILY MEMBERS.
S. Gil-Parrado, A. Fernandez-Montalvan, I. Assfalg-Machleidt, O. Popp, F. Bestvater, A. Holloschi, T. A. Knoch, E. A. Auerswald, K. Welsh, J. C. Reed, et al. (2002)
J. Biol. Chem. 277, 27217-27226
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Global changes in gene expression by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes during receptor-mediated phagocytosis: Cell fate is regulated at the level of gene expression.
S. D. Kobayashi, J. M. Voyich, C. L. Buhl, R. M. Stahl, and F. R. DeLeo (2002)
PNAS 99, 6901-6906
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Impaired cardiac hypertrophic response in Calcineurin A{beta}-deficient mice.
O. F. Bueno, B. J. Wilkins, K. M. Tymitz, B. J. Glascock, T. F. Kimball, J. N. Lorenz, and J. D. Molkentin (2002)
PNAS 99, 4586-4591
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hydrogen Peroxide Stimulates c-Src-mediated Big Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 1 (BMK1) and the MEF2C Signaling Pathway in PC12 Cells. POTENTIAL ROLE IN CELL SURVIVAL FOLLOWING OXIDATIVE INSULTS.
Y. Suzaki, M. Yoshizumi, S. Kagami, A. H. Koyama, Y. Taketani, H. Houchi, K. Tsuchiya, E. Takeda, and T. Tamaki (2002)
J. Biol. Chem. 277, 9614-9621
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Adenovirus E3-6.7K Maintains Calcium Homeostasis and Prevents Apoptosis and Arachidonic Acid Release.
A. R. Moise, J. R. Grant, T. Z. Vitalis, and W. A. Jefferies (2002)
J. Virol. 76, 1578-1587
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Resistance to Tumor Necrosis Factor-Induced Cell Death Mediated by PMCA4 Deficiency.
K. Ono, X. Wang, and J. Han (2001)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 21, 8276-8288
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The nuclear localization domain of the MEF2 family of transcription factors shows member-specific features and mediates the nuclear import of histone deacetylase 4.
S. Borghi, S. Molinari, G. Razzini, F. Parise, R. Battini, and S. Ferrari (2001)
J. Cell Sci. 114, 4477-4483
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanism for Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Histone Deacetylase 7.
H.-Y. Kao, A. Verdel, C.-C. Tsai, C. Simon, H. Juguilon, and S. Khochbin (2001)
J. Biol. Chem. 276, 47496-47507
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Silencing Mediator of Retinoid and Thyroid Hormone Receptors and Activating Signal Cointegrator-2 as Transcriptional Coregulators of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nur77.
Y. C. Sohn, E. Kwak, Y. Na, J. W. Lee, and S.-K. Lee (2001)
J. Biol. Chem. 276, 43734-43739
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deletion of Calcineurin and Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (MEF2) Binding Domain of Cabin1 Results in Enhanced Cytokine Gene Expression in T Cells.
C. Esau, M. Boes, H.-D. Youn, L. Tatterson, J. O. Liu, and J. Chen (2001)
J. Exp. Med. 194, 1449-1459
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cyclooxygenase-independent actions of cyclooxygenase inhibitors.
I. TEGEDER, J. PFEILSCHIFTER, and G. GEISSLINGER (2001)
FASEB J 15, 2057-2072
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2A and 2D Undergo Phosphorylation and Caspase-Mediated Degradation during Apoptosis of Rat Cerebellar Granule Neurons.
M. Li, D. A. Linseman, M. P. Allen, M. K. Meintzer, X. Wang, T. Laessig, M. E. Wierman, and K. A. Heidenreich (2001)
J. Neurosci. 21, 6544-6552
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differential localization of HDAC4 orchestrates muscle differentiation.
E. A. Miska, E. Langley, D. Wolf, C. Karlsson, J. Pines, and T. Kouzarides (2001)
Nucleic Acids Res. 29, 3439-3447
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
14-3-3{{tau}} associates with and activates the MEF2D transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation.
S.-J. Choi, S.-Y. Park, and T.-H. Han (2001)
Nucleic Acids Res. 29, 2836-2842
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Opposite Ability of Pre-TCR and {{alpha}}{{beta}}TCR to Induce Apoptosis.
A.-M. Steff, S. Trop, M. Maira, J. Drouin, and P. Hugo (2001)
J. Immunol. 166, 5044-5050
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Glucocorticosteroid dependent decrease in the activity of calcineurin in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
S Sipka, K Szucs, S Szanto, I Kovacs, G Lakos, E Kiss, P Antal-Szalmas, G Szegedi, and P Gergely (2001)
Ann Rheum Dis 60, 380-384
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Targeted inhibition of calcineurin attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in vivo.
L. J. De Windt, H. W. Lim, O. F. Bueno, Q. Liang, U. Delling, J. C. Braz, B. J. Glascock, T. F. Kimball, F. del Monte, R. J. Hajjar, et al. (2001)
PNAS 98, 3322-3327
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Smad proteins function as co-modulators for MEF2 transcriptional regulatory proteins.
Z. A. Quinn, C.-C. Yang, J. L. Wrana, and J. C. McDermott (2001)
Nucleic Acids Res. 29, 732-742
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differential Regulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases ERK1/2 and ERK5 by Neurotrophins, Neuronal Activity, and cAMP in Neurons.
J. E. Cavanaugh, J. Ham, M. Hetman, S. Poser, C. Yan, and Z. Xia (2001)
J. Neurosci. 21, 434-443
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Myocyte Enhancer Factors-2B and -2C Are Required for Adhesion Related Kinase Repression of Neuronal Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Gene Expression.
M. P. Allen, M. Xu, C. Zeng, S. A. Tobet, and M. E. Wierman (2000)
J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39662-39670
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ERK5 Is a Novel Type of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Containing a Transcriptional Activation Domain.
H. G. Kasler, J. Victoria, O. Duramad, and A. Winoto (2000)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 20, 8382-8389
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functional Analyses of Three Csx/Nkx-2.5 Mutations That Cause Human Congenital Heart Disease.
W. Zhu, I. Shiojima, Y. Hiroi, Y. Zou, H. Akazawa, M. Mizukami, H. Toko, Y. Yazaki, R. Nagai, and I. Komuro (2000)
J. Biol. Chem. 275, 35291-35296
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Calcineurin-binding Protein Cain Is a Negative Regulator of Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis.
M. M. Lai, H. R. Luo, P. E. Burnett, J. J. Hong, and S. H. Snyder (2000)
J. Biol. Chem. 275, 34017-34020
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
African Swine Fever Virus Protein A238L Interacts with the Cellular Phosphatase Calcineurin via a Binding Domain Similar to That of NFAT.
J. E. Miskin, C. C. Abrams, and L. K. Dixon (2000)
J. Virol. 74, 9412-9420
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Calcineurin: Form and Function.
F. Rusnak and P. Mertz (2000)
Physiol Rev 80, 1483-1521
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
APOPTOSIS: Mitochondria-the Death Signal Integrators.
C. Brenner and G. Kroemer (2000)
Science 289, 1150-1151
   Full Text »
Integration of calcineurin and MEF2 signals by the coactivator p300 during T-cell apoptosis.
H.-D. Youn, T. A. Chatila, and J. O. Liu (2000)
EMBO J. 19, 4323-4331
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Calcium Regulates Transcriptional Repression of Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 by Histone Deacetylase 4.
H.-D. Youn, C. M. Grozinger, and J. O. Liu (2000)
J. Biol. Chem. 275, 22563-22567
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A conserved family of calcineurin regulators.
T. J. Kingsbury and K. W. Cunningham (2000)
Genes & Dev. 14, 1595-1604
   Abstract »    Full Text »
Solution structure of the MEF2A-DNA complex: structural basis for the modulation of DNA bending and specificity by MADS-box transcription factors.
K. Huang, J. M. Louis, L. Donaldson, F.-L. Lim, A. D. Sharrocks, and G. M. Clore (2000)
EMBO J. 19, 2615-2628
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
MEF2 responds to multiple calcium-regulated signals in the control of skeletal muscle fiber type.
H. Wu, F. J. Naya, T. A. McKinsey, B. Mercer, J. M. Shelton, E. R. Chin, A. R. Simard, R. N. Michel, R. Bassel-Duby, E. N. Olson, et al. (2000)
EMBO J. 19, 1963-1973
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Protein Encoded within the Down Syndrome Critical Region Is Enriched in Striated Muscles and Inhibits Calcineurin Signaling.
B. Rothermel, R. B. Vega, J. Yang, H. Wu, R. Bassel-Duby, and R. S. Williams (2000)
J. Biol. Chem. 275, 8719-8725
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Calcium regulates transcriptional repression of myocyte enhancer factor 2 by histone deacetylase 4.
H.-D. Youn, C. M. Grozinger, and J. O. Liu (2000)
J. Biol. Chem.
   Abstract »
The Calcineurin binding protein cain is a negative regulator of synaptic Vesicle endocytosis.
M. M. Lai, H. R. Luo, P. E. Burnett, J. J. Hong, and S. H. Snyder (2000)
J. Biol. Chem.
   Abstract »
Functional analyses of three Csx/Nkx-2.5 mutations that cause human congenital heart disease.
W. Zhu, I. Shiojima, Y. Hiroi, Y. Zou, H. Akazawa, M. Mizukami, H. Toko, Y. Yazaki, R. Nagai, and I. Komuro (2000)
J. Biol. Chem.
   Abstract »
Myocyte Enhancer Factors-2B and -2C (MEF-2B, -2C) are Required for Adhesion Related Kinase (Ark) Repression of Neuronal Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Gene Expression.
M P Allen, M Xu, C Zeng, S A Tobet, and M E Wierman (2000)
J. Biol. Chem.
   Abstract »
Tamoxifen but Not 4-Hydroxytamoxifen Initiates Apoptosis in p53(-) Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells by Inducing Mitochondrial Depolarization.
E. C. Dietze, L. E. Caldwell, S. L. Grupin, M. Mancini, and V. L. Seewaldt (2001)
J. Biol. Chem. 276, 5384-5394
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Calcium, Calcineurin, and the Control of Transcription.
G. R. Crabtree (2001)
J. Biol. Chem. 276, 2313-2316
   Full Text »    PDF »
Defining Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Cascades in Transcriptional Regulation.
E. E. Corcoran and A. R. Means (2001)
J. Biol. Chem. 276, 2975-2978
   Full Text »    PDF »
Impaired cardiac hypertrophic response in Calcineurin A{beta}-deficient mice.
O. F. Bueno, B. J. Wilkins, K. M. Tymitz, B. J. Glascock, T. F. Kimball, J. N. Lorenz, and J. D. Molkentin (2002)
PNAS 99, 4586-4591
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cerebellar Defects in Ca2+/Calmodulin Kinase IV-Deficient Mice.
T. J. Ribar, R. M. Rodriguiz, L. Khiroug, W. C. Wetsel, G. J. Augustine, and A. R. Means (2000)
J. Neurosci. 20, RC107
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882