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Science 287 (5456): 1262-1265

Copyright © 2000 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

The Glucocorticoid Receptor: Rapid Exchange with Regulatory Sites in Living Cells

James G. McNally, * Waltraud G. Müller, * Dawn Walker, Ronald Wolford, Gordon L. Hager dagger

Steroid receptors bind to site-specific response elements in chromatin and modulate gene expression in a hormone-dependent fashion. With the use of a tandem array of mouse mammary tumor virus reporter elements and a form of glucocorticoid receptor labeled with green fluorescent protein, targeting of the receptor to response elements in live mouse cells was observed. Photobleaching experiments provide direct evidence that the hormone-occupied receptor undergoes rapid exchange between chromatin and the nucleoplasmic compartment. Thus, the interaction of regulatory proteins with target sites in chromatin is a more dynamic process than previously believed.

Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, Building 41, Room B602, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892-5055, USA.
*   These authors contributed equally to this work.

dagger    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: hagerg{at}

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   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphorylation-Elicited Quaternary Changes of GA Binding Protein in Transcriptional Activation.
M. Sunesen, M. Huchet-Dymanus, M. O. Christensen, and J.-P. Changeux (2003)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 8008-8018
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

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