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Science 288 (5471): 1613-1616

Copyright © 2000 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Distinct Roles of CONSTANS Target Genes in Reproductive Development of Arabidopsis

Alon Samach, 1*dagger Hitoshi Onouchi, 1* Scott E. Gold, 2ddagger Gary S. Ditta, 2 Zsuzsanna Schwarz-Sommer, 3 Martin F. Yanofsky, 2 George Coupland 1§

In plants, flowering is triggered by endogenous and environmental signals. CONSTANS (CO) promotes flowering of Arabidopsis in response to day length. Four early target genes of CO were identified using a steroid-inducible version of the protein. Two of these genes, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), are required for CO to promote flowering; the others are involved in proline or ethylene biosynthesis. The SOC1 and FT genes are also regulated by a second flowering-time pathway that acts independently of CO. Thus, early target genes of CO define common components of distinct flowering-time pathways.

1 John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK.
2 Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
3 Max-Planck-Institut für Züchtungsforschung, Köln 50829, Germany.
*   These authors contributed equally to this article.

dagger    Present address: Faculty of Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.

ddagger    Present address: Department of Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7274.

§   To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: george.coupland{at}

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