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Science 289 (5481): 957-960

Copyright © 2000 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Uptake of Glutamate into Synaptic Vesicles by an Inorganic Phosphate Transporter

Elizabeth E. Bellocchio,* Richard J. Reimer,* Robert T. Fremeau Jr., Robert H. Edwardsdagger

Previous work has identified two families of proteins that transport classical neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles, but the protein responsible for vesicular transport of the principal excitatory transmitter glutamate has remained unknown. We demonstrate that a protein that is unrelated to any known neurotransmitter transporters and that was previously suggested to mediate the Na+-dependent uptake of inorganic phosphate across the plasma membrane transports glutamate into synaptic vesicles. In addition, we show that this vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1, exhibits a conductance for chloride that is blocked by glutamate.

Departments of Neurology and Physiology, Graduate Programs in Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Biomedical Sciences, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0435, USA.
*   These authors contributed equally to the work.

dagger    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: edwards{at}

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Differential Expression of Glutamate Receptor Subunits in the Nervous System of Caenorhabditis elegans and Their Regulation by the Homeodomain Protein UNC-42.
P. J. Brockie, D. M. Madsen, Y. Zheng, J. Mellem, and A. V. Maricq (2001)
J. Neurosci. 21, 1510-1522
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The Neuroscientist Comments.
Neuroscientist 7, 1-2
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The vesicular neurotransmitter transporters: current perspectives and future prospects.
L. E. EIDEN (2000)
FASEB J 14, 2396-2400
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Neurogenetics of vesicular transporters in C. elegans.
J. B. RAND, J. S. DUERR, and D. L. FRISBY (2000)
FASEB J 14, 2414-2422
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Chemical neuroanatomy of the vesicular amine transporters.
E. WEIHE and L. E. EIDEN (2000)
FASEB J 14, 2435-2449
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Mitochondrial signals in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the beta cell.
P. Maechler and C. B Wollheim (2000)
J. Physiol. 529, 49-56
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Synaptic Vesicle Transporter Expression Regulates Vesicle Phenotype and Quantal Size.
E. N. Pothos, K. E. Larsen, D. E. Krantz, Y.-j. Liu, J. W. Haycock, W. Setlik, M. D. Gershon, R. H. Edwards, and D. Sulzer (2000)
J. Neurosci. 20, 7297-7306
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D-Aspartate Is Stored in Secretory Granules and Released through a Ca2+-dependent Pathway in a Subset of Rat Pheochromocytoma PC12 Cells.
S. Nakatsuka, M. Hayashi, A. Muroyama, M. Otsuka, S. Kozaki, H. Yamada, and Y. Moriyama (2001)
J. Biol. Chem. 276, 26589-26596
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Molecular and Functional Analysis of a Novel Neuronal Vesicular Glutamate Transporter.
L. Bai, H. Xu, J. F. Collins, and F. K. Ghishan (2001)
J. Biol. Chem. 276, 36764-36769
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The Existence of a Second Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Specifies Subpopulations of Glutamatergic Neurons.
E. Herzog, G. C. Bellenchi, C. Gras, V. Bernard, P. Ravassard, C. Bedet, B. Gasnier, B. Giros, and S. El Mestikawy (2001)
J. Neurosci. 21, RC181
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