Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.

Subscribe

Logo for

Science 289 (5481): 957-960

Copyright © 2000 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Uptake of Glutamate into Synaptic Vesicles by an Inorganic Phosphate Transporter

Elizabeth E. Bellocchio,* Richard J. Reimer,* Robert T. Fremeau Jr., Robert H. Edwardsdagger

Previous work has identified two families of proteins that transport classical neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles, but the protein responsible for vesicular transport of the principal excitatory transmitter glutamate has remained unknown. We demonstrate that a protein that is unrelated to any known neurotransmitter transporters and that was previously suggested to mediate the Na+-dependent uptake of inorganic phosphate across the plasma membrane transports glutamate into synaptic vesicles. In addition, we show that this vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1, exhibits a conductance for chloride that is blocked by glutamate.

Departments of Neurology and Physiology, Graduate Programs in Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Biomedical Sciences, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0435, USA.
*   These authors contributed equally to the work.

dagger    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: edwards{at}itsa.ucsf.edu


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
Individual synaptic vesicles from the electroplaque of Torpedo californica, a classic cholinergic synapse, also contain transporters for glutamate and ATP.
H. Li and M. L. Harlow (2014)
PHY2 2, e00206
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Multiple Dileucine-like Motifs Direct VGLUT1 Trafficking.
S. M. Foss, H. Li, M. S. Santos, R. H. Edwards, and S. M. Voglmaier (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 10647-10660
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Retinal Input Regulates the Timing of Corticogeniculate Innervation.
T. A. Seabrook, R. N. El-Danaf, T. E. Krahe, M. A. Fox, and W. Guido (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 10085-10097
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Lack of Evidence for Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Expression in Mouse Astrocytes.
D. Li, K. Herault, K. Silm, A. Evrard, S. Wojcik, M. Oheim, E. Herzog, and N. Ropert (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 4434-4455
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vesicular uptake and exocytosis of L-aspartate is independent of sialin.
C. Morland, K. Nordengen, M. Larsson, L. M. Prolo, Z. Farzampour, R. J. Reimer, and V. Gundersen (2013)
FASEB J 27, 1264-1274
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Rax Is a Selector Gene for Mediobasal Hypothalamic Cell Types.
F. Lu, D. Kar, N. Gruenig, Z. W. Zhang, N. Cousins, H. M. Rodgers, E. C. Swindell, M. Jamrich, C. Schuurmans, P. H. Mathers, et al. (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 259-272
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transporters: An Approach for Studying Transporters With Purified Proteins.
H. Omote and Y. Moriyama (2013)
Physiology 28, 39-50
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Glutamate Corelease Promotes Growth and Survival of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons.
G. M. Fortin, M.-J. Bourque, J. A. Mendez, D. Leo, K. Nordenankar, C. Birgner, E. Arvidsson, V. V. Rymar, N. Berube-Carriere, A.-M. Claveau, et al. (2012)
J. Neurosci. 32, 17477-17491
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Clustered burst firing in FMR1 premutation hippocampal neurons: amelioration with allopregnanolone.
Z. Cao, S. Hulsizer, F. Tassone, H.-t. Tang, R. J. Hagerman, M. A. Rogawski, P. J. Hagerman, and I. N. Pessah (2012)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 21, 2923-2935
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Impaired neurotransmission in ether lipid-deficient nerve terminals.
A. Brodde, A. Teigler, B. Brugger, W. D. Lehmann, F. Wieland, J. Berger, and W. W. Just (2012)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 21, 2713-2724
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vesicular and Plasma Membrane Transporters for Neurotransmitters.
R. D. Blakely and R. H. Edwards (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4, a005595
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Specific Regulation of NRG1 Isoform Expression by Neuronal Activity.
X. Liu, R. Bates, D.-M. Yin, C. Shen, F. Wang, N. Su, S. A. Kirov, Y. Luo, J.-Z. Wang, W.-C. Xiong, et al. (2011)
J. Neurosci. 31, 8491-8501
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bidirectional regulation of thermotaxis by glutamate transmissions in Caenorhabditis elegans.
N. Ohnishi, A. Kuhara, F. Nakamura, Y. Okochi, and I. Mori (2011)
EMBO J. 30, 1376-1388
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Normal Physiological and Pathophysiological Effects of Trypan Blue on the Retinas of Albino Rabbits.
G. Heilweil, I. Komarowska, E. Zemel, A. Loewenstein, and I. Perlman (2010)
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 4187-4194
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vesicular Glutamate Transporter VGLUT1 Has a Role in Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation and Spatial Reversal Learning.
D. Balschun, D. Moechars, Z. Callaerts-Vegh, B. Vermaercke, N. Van Acker, L. Andries, and R. D'Hooge (2010)
Cereb Cortex 20, 684-693
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
VGLUT2 in dopamine neurons is required for psychostimulant-induced behavioral activation.
C. Birgner, K. Nordenankar, M. Lundblad, J. A. Mendez, C. Smith, M. le Greves, D. Galter, L. Olson, A. Fredriksson, L.-E. Trudeau, et al. (2010)
PNAS 107, 389-394
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Antidepressant Actions of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors.
H. E. Covington III, I. Maze, Q. C. LaPlant, V. F. Vialou, Y. N. Ohnishi, O. Berton, D. M. Fass, W. Renthal, A. J. Rush III, E. Y. Wu, et al. (2009)
J. Neurosci. 29, 11451-11460
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Enriched Expression of Serotonin 1B and 2A Receptor Genes in Macaque Visual Cortex and their Bidirectional Modulatory Effects on Neuronal Responses.
A. Watakabe, Y. Komatsu, O. Sadakane, S. Shimegi, T. Takahata, N. Higo, S. Tochitani, T. Hashikawa, T. Naito, H. Osaki, et al. (2009)
Cereb Cortex 19, 1915-1928
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Phosphate Transporter PHT4;6 Is a Determinant of Salt Tolerance that Is Localized to the Golgi Apparatus of Arabidopsis.
B. Cubero, Y. Nakagawa, X.-Y. Jiang, K.-J. Miura, F. Li, K. G. Raghothama, R. A. Bressan, P. M. Hasegawa, and J. M. Pardo (2009)
Mol Plant 2, 535-552
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Restricted Cortical and Amygdaloid Removal of Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 in Preadolescent Mice Impacts Dopaminergic Activity and Neuronal Circuitry of Higher Brain Function.
A. Wallen-Mackenzie, K. Nordenankar, K. Fejgin, M. C. Lagerstrom, L. Emilsson, R. Fredriksson, C. Wass, D. Andersson, E. Egecioglu, M. Andersson, et al. (2009)
J. Neurosci. 29, 2238-2251
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The role of endocytosis in regulating the strength of hippocampal synapses.
B. Granseth and L. Lagnado (2008)
J. Physiol. 586, 5969-5982
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Orphan Transporter Rxt1/NTT4 (SLC6A17) Functions as a Synaptic Vesicle Amino Acid Transporter Selective for Proline, Glycine, Leucine, and Alanine.
L. A. Parra, T. Baust, S. El Mestikawy, M. Quiroz, B. Hoffman, J. M. Haflett, J. K. Yao, and G. E. Torres (2008)
Mol. Pharmacol. 74, 1521-1532
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Telencephalic Neurons Monosynaptically Link Brainstem and Forebrain Premotor Networks Necessary for Song.
T. F. Roberts, M. E. Klein, M. F. Kubke, J. M. Wild, and R. Mooney (2008)
J. Neurosci. 28, 3479-3489
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Somatodendritic Release of Glutamate Regulates Synaptic Inhibition in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells via Autocrine mGluR1 Activation.
I. C. Duguid, Y. Pankratov, G. W. J. Moss, and T. G. Smart (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 12464-12474
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphate transporters: a tale of two solute carrier families.
L. V. Virkki, J. Biber, H. Murer, and I. C. Forster (2007)
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 293, F643-F654
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Altered expression of synaptic protein mRNAs in STOP (MAP6) mutant mice.
S. L. Eastwood, L. Lyon, L. George, A. Andrieux, D. Job, and P. J. Harrison (2007)
J Psychopharmacol 21, 635-644
   Abstract »    PDF »
Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 1 Is Required for Photoreceptor Synaptic Signaling But Not For Intrinsic Visual Functions.
J. Johnson, R. T. Fremeau Jr, J. L. Duncan, R. C. Renteria, H. Yang, Z. Hua, X. Liu, M. M. LaVail, R. H. Edwards, and D. R. Copenhagen (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 7245-7255
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dynamic Changes in Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 1 Function and Expression Related to Methamphetamine-Induced Glutamate Release.
K. A. Mark, M. S. Quinton, S. J. Russek, and B. K. Yamamoto (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 6823-6831
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Glutamatergic Afferents of the Ventral Tegmental Area in the Rat.
S. Geisler, C. Derst, R. W. Veh, and D. S. Zahm (2007)
J. Neurosci. 27, 5730-5743
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 Is Required for Central Respiratory Rhythm Generation But Not for Locomotor Central Pattern Generation..
A. Wallen-Mackenzie, H. Gezelius, M. Thoby-Brisson, A. Nygard, A. Enjin, F. Fujiyama, G. Fortin, and K. Kullander (2006)
J. Neurosci. 26, 12294-12307
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vesicular Glutamate Transporter VGLUT2 Expression Levels Control Quantal Size and Neuropathic Pain..
D. Moechars, M. C. Weston, S. Leo, Z. Callaerts-Vegh, I. Goris, G. Daneels, A. Buist, M. Cik, P. van der Spek, S. Kass, et al. (2006)
J. Neurosci. 26, 12055-12066
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Formation of Presynaptic Terminals at Predefined Sites along Axons..
S. L. Sabo, R. A. Gomes, and A. K. McAllister (2006)
J. Neurosci. 26, 10813-10825
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mice lacking brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase have impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, altered breathing, disorganized goal-directed behavior and die shortly after birth..
J. Masson, M. Darmon, A. Conjard, N. Chuhma, N. Ropert, M. Thoby-Brisson, A. S. Foutz, S. Parrot, G. M. Miller, R. Jorisch, et al. (2006)
J. Neurosci. 26, 4660-4671
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GABAergic Signaling at Mossy Fiber Synapses in Neonatal Rat Hippocampus.
V. F. Safiulina, G. Fattorini, F. Conti, and E. Cherubini (2006)
J. Neurosci. 26, 597-608
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Homeostatic Scaling of Vesicular Glutamate and GABA Transporter Expression in Rat Neocortical Circuits.
S. De Gois, M. K.-H. Schafer, N. Defamie, C. Chen, A. Ricci, E. Weihe, H. Varoqui, and J. D. Erickson (2005)
J. Neurosci. 25, 7121-7133
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Decreased Sensory Stimulation Reduces Behavioral Responding, Retards Development, and Alters Neuronal Connectivity in Caenorhabditis elegans.
J. K. Rose, S. Sangha, S. Rai, K. R. Norman, and C. H. Rankin (2005)
J. Neurosci. 25, 7159-7168
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dendritic Release of Retrograde Messengers Controls Synaptic Transmission in Local Neocortical Networks.
Y. Zilberter, T. Harkany, and C. D. Holmgren (2005)
Neuroscientist 11, 334-344
   Abstract »    PDF »
Presynaptic Regulation of Quantal Size by the Vesicular Glutamate Transporter VGLUT1.
N. R. Wilson, J. Kang, E. V. Hueske, T. Leung, H. Varoqui, J. G. Murnick, J. D. Erickson, and G. Liu (2005)
J. Neurosci. 25, 6221-6234
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
G{alpha}o2 Regulates Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Activity by Changing Its Chloride Dependence.
S. Winter, I. Brunk, D. J. Walther, M. Holtje, M. Jiang, J.-U. Peter, S. Takamori, R. Jahn, L. Birnbaumer, and G. Ahnert-Hilger (2005)
J. Neurosci. 25, 4672-4680
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vglut1 and ZnT3 co-targeting mechanisms regulate vesicular zinc stores in PC12 cells.
G. Salazar, B. Craige, R. Love, D. Kalman, and V. Faundez (2005)
J. Cell Sci. 118, 1911-1921
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deletion of the NR2A subunit prevents developmental changes of NMDA-mEPSCs in cultured mouse cerebellar granule neurones.
Z. Fu, S. M Logan, and S. Vicini (2005)
J. Physiol. 563, 867-881
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Varied Mechanisms Underlie the Free Sialic Acid Storage Disorders.
C. C. Wreden, M. Wlizla, and R. J. Reimer (2005)
J. Biol. Chem. 280, 1408-1416
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Increased Expression of the Drosophila Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Leads to Excess Glutamate Release and a Compensatory Decrease in Quantal Content.
R. W. Daniels, C. A. Collins, M. V. Gelfand, J. Dant, E. S. Brooks, D. E. Krantz, and A. DiAntonio (2004)
J. Neurosci. 24, 10466-10474
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chemically Specific Circuit Composed of Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 3- and Preprotachykinin B-producing Interneurons in the Rat Neocortex.
H. Hioki, F. Fujiyama, K. Nakamura, S.-X. Wu, W. Matsuda, and T. Kaneko (2004)
Cereb Cortex 14, 1266-1275
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Thiamine Pyrophosphate Biosynthesis and Transport in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
L. de Jong, Y. Meng, J. Dent, and S. Hekimi (2004)
Genetics 168, 845-854
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neuronal Toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans from an Editing Site Mutant in Glutamate Receptor Channels.
R. Aronoff, J. E. Mellem, A. V. Maricq, R. Sprengel, and P. H. Seeburg (2004)
J. Neurosci. 24, 8135-8140
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NEUROSCIENCE: Vesicular Glutamate Transporter--Shooting Blanks.
K. Schuske and E. M. Jorgensen (2004)
Science 304, 1750-1752
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vesicular Glutamate Transporters 1 and 2 Target to Functionally Distinct Synaptic Release Sites.
R. T. Fremeau Jr., K. Kam, T. Qureshi, J. Johnson, D. R. Copenhagen, J. Storm-Mathisen, F. A. Chaudhry, R. A. Nicoll, and R. H. Edwards (2004)
Science 304, 1815-1819
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
AP-3-dependent Mechanisms Control the Targeting of a Chloride Channel (ClC-3) in Neuronal and Non-neuronal Cells.
G. Salazar, R. Love, M. L. Styers, E. Werner, A. Peden, S. Rodriguez, M. Gearing, B. H. Wainer, and V. Faundez (2004)
J. Biol. Chem. 279, 25430-25439
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Endocannabinoid-Independent Retrograde Signaling at Inhibitory Synapses in Layer 2/3 of Neocortex: Involvement of Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 3.
T. Harkany, C. Holmgren, W. Hartig, T. Qureshi, F. A. Chaudhry, J. Storm-Mathisen, M. B. Dobszay, P. Berghuis, G. Schulte, K. M. Sousa, et al. (2004)
J. Neurosci. 24, 4978-4988
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
An essential role for vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) in postnatal development and control of quantal size.
S. M. Wojcik, J. S. Rhee, E. Herzog, A. Sigler, R. Jahn, S. Takamori, N. Brose, and C. Rosenmund (2004)
PNAS 101, 7158-7163
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fusion-related Release of Glutamate from Astrocytes.
Q. Zhang, T. Pangrsic, M. Kreft, M. Krzan, N. Li, J.-Y. Sul, M. Halassa, E. Van Bockstaele, R. Zorec, and P. G. Haydon (2004)
J. Biol. Chem. 279, 12724-12733
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is required for compensatory regulation of GLR-1 glutamate receptors after activity blockade.
M. E. Grunwald, J. E. Mellem, N. Strutz, A. V. Maricq, and J. M. Kaplan (2004)
PNAS 101, 3190-3195
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dopamine and Glutamate Control Area-Restricted Search Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.
T. Hills, P. J. Brockie, and A. V. Maricq (2004)
J. Neurosci. 24, 1217-1225
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Glutamatergic Chemical Transmission: Look! Here, There, and Anywhere.
Y. Moriyama and A. Yamamoto (2004)
J. Biochem. 135, 155-163
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Zinc Transporter ZnT3 Interacts with AP-3 and It Is Preferentially Targeted to a Distinct Synaptic Vesicle Subpopulation.
G. Salazar, R. Love, E. Werner, M. M. Doucette, S. Cheng, A. Levey, and V. Faundez (2004)
Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 575-587
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Infantile bilateral striatal necrosis maps to chromosome 19q.
L. Basel-Vanagaite, R. Straussberg, H. Ovadia, A. Kaplan, N. Magal, Z. Shorer, H. Shalev, C. Walsh, and M. Shohat (2004)
Neurology 62, 87-90
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Anatomy of adenosine A2A receptors in brain: Morphological substrates for integration of striatal function.
D. L. Rosin, B. D. Hettinger, A. Lee, and J. Linden (2003)
Neurology 61, S12-18
   Abstract »    Full Text »
Direct and Indirect Regulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons by Estradiol.
S. L. Petersen, E. N. Ottem, and C. D. Carpenter (2003)
Biol Reprod 69, 1771-1778
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Expression and Localization of Vesicular Glutamate Transporters in Pancreatic Islets, Upper Gastrointestinal Tract, and Testis.
M. Hayashi, R. Morimoto, A. Yamamoto, and Y. Moriyama (2003)
Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry 51, 1375-1390
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Caenorhabditis elegans ems class homeobox gene ceh-2 is required for M3 pharynx motoneuron function.
G. Aspock, G. Ruvkun, and T. R. Burglin (2003)
Development 130, 3369-3378
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Glucose metabolism and glutamate analog acutely alkalinize pH of insulin secretory vesicles of pancreatic {beta}-cells.
K. Eto, T. Yamashita, K. Hirose, Y. Tsubamoto, E. K. Ainscow, G. A. Rutter, S. Kimura, M. Noda, M. Iino, and T. Kadowaki (2003)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 285, E262-E271
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Functional Properties and Cellular Distribution of the System A Glutamine Transporter SNAT1 Support Specialized Roles in Central Neurons.
B. Mackenzie, M. K.-H. Schafer, J. D. Erickson, M. A. Hediger, E. Weihe, and H. Varoqui (2003)
J. Biol. Chem. 278, 23720-23730
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Brain Synaptic Junctional Proteins at the Acrosome of Rat Testicular Germ Cells.
P. Redecker, M. R. Kreutz, J. Bockmann, E. D. Gundelfinger, and T. M. Boeckers (2003)
Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry 51, 809-819
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Characterization of vesicular glutamate transporter in pancreatic alpha - and beta -cells and its regulation by glucose.
L. Bai, X. Zhang, and F. K. Ghishan (2003)
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 284, G808-G814
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
From Genes to Integrative Physiology: Ion Channel and Transporter Biology in Caenorhabditis elegans.
K. Strange (2003)
Physiol Rev 83, 377-415
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Stages of Memory in the Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans.
S. Steidl, J. K. Rose, and C. H. Rankin (2003)
Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev 2, 3-14
   Abstract »    PDF »
Glycolysis and Glutamate Accumulation into Synaptic Vesicles. ROLE OF GLYCERALDEHYDE PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE AND 3-PHOSPHOGLYCERATE KINASE.
A. Ikemoto, D. G. Bole, and T. Ueda (2003)
J. Biol. Chem. 278, 5929-5940
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transporter Expression in Developing Postnatal Rodent Retina: GABA and Glycine Precede Glutamate.
J. Johnson, N. Tian, M. S. Caywood, R. J. Reimer, R. H. Edwards, and D. R. Copenhagen (2003)
J. Neurosci. 23, 518-529
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Secretory Granule-mediated Co-secretion of L-Glutamate and Glucagon Triggers Glutamatergic Signal Transmission in Islets of Langerhans.
M. Hayashi, H. Yamada, S. Uehara, R. Morimoto, A. Muroyama, S. Yatsushiro, J. Takeda, A. Yamamoto, and Y. Moriyama (2003)
J. Biol. Chem. 278, 1966-1974
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular Cloning and Functional Identification of Mouse Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 3 and Its Expression in Subsets of Novel Excitatory Neurons.
M. K.-H. Schafer, H. Varoqui, N. Defamie, E. Weihe, and J. D. Erickson (2002)
J. Biol. Chem. 277, 50734-50748
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Subtype-specific Expression of Group III Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and Ca2+ Channels in Single Nerve Terminals.
C. Millan, R. Lujan, R. Shigemoto, and J. Sanchez-Prieto (2002)
J. Biol. Chem. 277, 47796-47803
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The identification of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 suggests novel modes of signaling by glutamate.
R. T. Fremeau Jr., J. Burman, T. Qureshi, C. H. Tran, J. Proctor, J. Johnson, H. Zhang, D. Sulzer, D. R. Copenhagen, J. Storm-Mathisen, et al. (2002)
PNAS 99, 14488-14493
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular cloning and functional characterization of human vesicular glutamate transporter 3.
S. Takamori, P. Malherbe, C. Broger, and R. Jahn (2002)
EMBO Rep. 3, 798-803
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Third Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Expressed by Cholinergic and Serotoninergic Neurons.
C. Gras, E. Herzog, G. C. Bellenchi, V. Bernard, P. Ravassard, M. Pohl, B. Gasnier, B. Giros, and S. El Mestikawy (2002)
J. Neurosci. 22, 5442-5451
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GABAergic Terminals Are Required for Postsynaptic Clustering of Dystrophin But Not of GABAA Receptors and Gephyrin.
I. Brunig, A. Suter, I. Knuesel, B. Luscher, and J.-M. Fritschy (2002)
J. Neurosci. 22, 4805-4813
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Localization and function of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in rat pancreatic islets.
Q. Tong, R. Ouedraogo, and A. L. Kirchgessner (2002)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282, E1324-E1333
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular Structure and Physiological Function of Chloride Channels.
T. J. Jentsch, V. Stein, F. Weinreich, and A. A. Zdebik (2002)
Physiol Rev 82, 503-568
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of the Differentiation-Associated Na+/PI Transporter as a Novel Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Expressed in a Distinct Set of Glutamatergic Synapses.
H. Varoqui, M. K.-H. Schafer, H. Zhu, E. Weihe, and J. D. Erickson (2002)
J. Neurosci. 22, 142-155
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The EGL-3 Proprotein Convertase Regulates Mechanosensory Responses of Caenorhabditis elegans.
J. Kass, T. C. Jacob, P. Kim, and J. M. Kaplan (2001)
J. Neurosci. 21, 9265-9272
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Differentiation-associated Na+-dependent Inorganic Phosphate Cotransporter (DNPI) Is a Vesicular Glutamate Transporter in Endocrine Glutamatergic Systems.
M. Hayashi, M. Otsuka, R. Morimoto, S. Hirota, S. Yatsushiro, J. Takeda, A. Yamamoto, and Y. Moriyama (2001)
J. Biol. Chem. 276, 43400-43406
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Priming of insulin granules for exocytosis by granular Cl- uptake and acidification.
S. Barg, P. Huang, L. Eliasson, D. J. Nelson, S. Obermuller, P. Rorsman, F. Thevenod, and E. Renstrom (2001)
J. Cell Sci. 114, 2145-2154
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of Distinct Attractive and Aversive Mechanisms Mediating Benzaldehyde Chemotaxis in Caenorhabditis elegans.
W. M. Nuttley, S. Harbinder, and D. van der Kooy (2001)
Learn. Mem. 8, 170-181
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Analyses of Habituation in Caenorhabditis elegans.
J. K. Rose and C. H. Rankin (2001)
Learn. Mem. 8, 63-69
   Abstract »    Full Text »
Differential Expression of Glutamate Receptor Subunits in the Nervous System of Caenorhabditis elegans and Their Regulation by the Homeodomain Protein UNC-42.
P. J. Brockie, D. M. Madsen, Y. Zheng, J. Mellem, and A. V. Maricq (2001)
J. Neurosci. 21, 1510-1522
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Neuroscientist Comments.
(2001)
Neuroscientist 7, 1-2
   PDF »
The vesicular neurotransmitter transporters: current perspectives and future prospects.
L. E. EIDEN (2000)
FASEB J 14, 2396-2400
   Full Text »
Neurogenetics of vesicular transporters in C. elegans.
J. B. RAND, J. S. DUERR, and D. L. FRISBY (2000)
FASEB J 14, 2414-2422
   Abstract »    Full Text »
Chemical neuroanatomy of the vesicular amine transporters.
E. WEIHE and L. E. EIDEN (2000)
FASEB J 14, 2435-2449
   Abstract »    Full Text »
Mitochondrial signals in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the beta cell.
P. Maechler and C. B Wollheim (2000)
J. Physiol. 529, 49-56
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Synaptic Vesicle Transporter Expression Regulates Vesicle Phenotype and Quantal Size.
E. N. Pothos, K. E. Larsen, D. E. Krantz, Y.-j. Liu, J. W. Haycock, W. Setlik, M. D. Gershon, R. H. Edwards, and D. Sulzer (2000)
J. Neurosci. 20, 7297-7306
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
D-Aspartate Is Stored in Secretory Granules and Released through a Ca2+-dependent Pathway in a Subset of Rat Pheochromocytoma PC12 Cells.
S. Nakatsuka, M. Hayashi, A. Muroyama, M. Otsuka, S. Kozaki, H. Yamada, and Y. Moriyama (2001)
J. Biol. Chem. 276, 26589-26596
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular and Functional Analysis of a Novel Neuronal Vesicular Glutamate Transporter.
L. Bai, H. Xu, J. F. Collins, and F. K. Ghishan (2001)
J. Biol. Chem. 276, 36764-36769
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Existence of a Second Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Specifies Subpopulations of Glutamatergic Neurons.
E. Herzog, G. C. Bellenchi, C. Gras, V. Bernard, P. Ravassard, C. Bedet, B. Gasnier, B. Giros, and S. El Mestikawy (2001)
J. Neurosci. 21, RC181
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products


Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882