Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 289 (5487): 2122-2125

Copyright © 2000 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Role of Brain Insulin Receptor in Control of Body Weight and Reproduction

Jens C. Brüning,1* Dinesh Gautam,1 Deborah J. Burks,2 Jennifer Gillette,1 Markus Schubert,1 Paul C. Orban,3dagger Rüdiger Klein,3 Wilhelm Krone,1 Dirk Müller-Wieland,1 C. Ronald Kahn2*

Insulin receptors (IRs) and insulin signaling proteins are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). To study the physiological role of insulin signaling in the brain, we created mice with a neuron-specific disruption of the IR gene (NIRKO mice). Inactivation of the IR had no impact on brain development or neuronal survival. However, female NIRKO mice showed increased food intake, and both male and female mice developed diet-sensitive obesity with increases in body fat and plasma leptin levels, mild insulin resistance, elevated plasma insulin levels, and hypertriglyceridemia. NIRKO mice also exhibited impaired spermatogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation because of hypothalamic dysregulation of luteinizing hormone. Thus, IR signaling in the CNS plays an important role in regulation of energy disposal, fuel metabolism, and reproduction.

1 Klinik II und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin and Center of Molecular Medicine (ZMMK) der Universität zu Köln, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50931 Cologne, Germany.
2 Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, One Joslin Place, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
3 European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
*   To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jens.bruening{at} and c.ronald.kahn{at}

dagger    Present address: San Raffaele Scientific Institute, DIBIT-HSR, Olgettina 60, Milan, Italy.

Effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on appetite and body weight: focus on the CNS.
L. van Bloemendaal, J. S. ten Kulve, S. E. la Fleur, R. G. Ijzerman, and M. Diamant (2014)
J. Endocrinol. 221, T1-T16
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Obesity-Induced Infertility and Hyperandrogenism Are Corrected by Deletion of the Insulin Receptor in the Ovarian Theca Cell.
S. Wu, S. Divall, A. Nwaopara, S. Radovick, F. Wondisford, C. Ko, and A. Wolfe (2014)
Diabetes 63, 1270-1282
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The expanding role of incretin-based therapies: how much should we expect?.
M. Haluzik (2014)
J. Endocrinol. 221, E1-E2
   Full Text »    PDF »
The relationship between gut and adipose hormones, and reproduction.
A. N. Comninos, C. N. Jayasena, and W. S. Dhillo (2014)
Hum. Reprod. Update 20, 153-174
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Kisspeptin and energy balance in reproduction.
J.-A. P. De Bond and J. T. Smith (2014)
Reproduction 147, R53-R63
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Insulin Signals Through the Dorsal Vagal Complex to Regulate Energy Balance.
B. M. Filippi, A. Bassiri, M. A. Abraham, F. A. Duca, J. T. Y. Yue, and T. K. T. Lam (2014)
Diabetes 63, 892-899
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Impact of Obesity on Ovotoxicity Induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in Mice.
J. Nteeba, S. Ganesan, and A. F. Keating (2014)
Biol Reprod 90, 68
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Insulin signaling, resistance, and metabolic syndrome: insights from mouse models into disease mechanisms.
S. Guo (2014)
J. Endocrinol. 220, T1-T23
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
FTO Genotype, Vitamin D Status, and Weight Gain During Childhood.
B. H. Lourenco, L. Qi, W. C. Willett, M. A. Cardoso, and for the ACTION Study Team (2014)
Diabetes 63, 808-814
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evidence for Central Regulation of Glucose Metabolism.
M. Carey, S. Kehlenbrink, and M. Hawkins (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 34981-34988
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Sex differences in the physiology of eating.
L. Asarian and N. Geary (2013)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 305, R1215-R1267
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Testosterone and the Cardiovascular System: A Comprehensive Review of the Clinical Literature.
P. M. Oskui, W. J. French, M. J. Herring, G. S. Mayeda, S. Burstein, and R. A. Kloner (2013)
JAHA 2, e000272
   Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic dissection of puberty in mice.
D. Kumar and U. Boehm (2013)
Exp Physiol 98, 1528-1534
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Blunted Refeeding Response and Increased Locomotor Activity in Mice Lacking FoxO1 in Synapsin-Cre-Expressing Neurons.
H. Ren, L. Plum-Morschel, R. Gutierrez-Juarez, T. Y. Lu, J. Y. Kim-Muller, G. Heinrich, S. L. Wardlaw, R. Silver, and D. Accili (2013)
Diabetes 62, 3373-3383
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Simultaneous Profiling of 194 Distinct Receptor Transcripts in Human Cells.
B. H. Kang, K. J. Jensen, J. A. Hatch, and K. A. Janes (2013)
Science Signaling 6, rs13
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deletion of the Insulin Receptor in the Proximal Tubule Promotes Hyperglycemia.
S. Tiwari, R. S. Singh, L. Li, S. Tsukerman, M. Godbole, G. Pandey, and C. M. Ecelbarger (2013)
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 24, 1209-1214
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The LIM Domain Only 4 Protein Is a Metabolic Responsive Inhibitor of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B That Controls Hypothalamic Leptin Signaling.
N. R. Pandey, X. Zhou, Z. Qin, T. Zaman, M. Gomez-Smith, K. Keyhanian, H. Anisman, J. M. Brunel, A. F. R. Stewart, and H.-H. Chen (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 12647-12655
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Insulin Receptor Signaling in Cones.
A. Rajala, R. Dighe, M.-P. Agbaga, R. E. Anderson, and R. V. S. Rajala (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 19503-19515
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Histidine Augments the Suppression of Hepatic Glucose Production by Central Insulin Action.
K. Kimura, Y. Nakamura, Y. Inaba, M. Matsumoto, Y. Kido, S.-i. Asahara, T. Matsuda, H. Watanabe, A. Maeda, F. Inagaki, et al. (2013)
Diabetes 62, 2266-2277
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Loss of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Increases IGF-I Receptor Tyrosine Phosphorylation but Does Not Rescue Retinal Defects in IRS2-Deficient Mice.
A. I. Arroba, J. Revuelta-Cervantes, L. Menes, A. Gonzalez-Rodriguez, V. Pardo, P. de la Villa, D. J. Burks, and A. M. Valverde (2013)
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 4215-4225
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Body weight loss reverts obesity-associated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
G. Corona, G. Rastrelli, M. Monami, F. Saad, M. Luconi, M. Lucchese, E. Facchiano, A. Sforza, G. Forti, E. Mannucci, et al. (2013)
Eur. J. Endocrinol. 168, 829-843
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The effect of short-term nutritional supplementation of ewes with lupin grain (Lupinus luteus) on folliculogenesis, the concentrations of hormones and glucose in plasma and follicular fluid and the follicular levels of P450 aromatase and IRS-1, -2 and -4.
A. Somchit-Assavacheep, B. K. Campbell, M. Khalid, N. R. Kendall, and R. J. Scaramuzzi (2013)
Reproduction 145, 319-333
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Erectile dysfunction in general medicine.
P. Grant, G. Jackson, I. Baig, and J. Quin (2013)
Clin Med 13, 136-140
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interactions between the central nervous system and pancreatic islet secretions: a historical perspective.
D. P. Begg and S. C. Woods (2013)
Advan Physiol Educ 37, 53-60
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Moo1 obesity quantitative trait locus in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J mice increases food intake.
S. Karunakaran, A. Manji, C. S. Yan, Z.-J. J. Wu, and S. M. Clee (2013)
Physiol Genomics 45, F191-F199
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neural Correlates of Stress- and Food Cue-Induced Food Craving in Obesity: Association with insulin levels.
A. M. Jastreboff, R. Sinha, C. Lacadie, D. M. Small, R. S. Sherwin, and M. N. Potenza (2013)
Diabetes Care 36, 394-402
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neuronal Androgen Receptor Regulates Insulin Sensitivity via Suppression of Hypothalamic NF-{kappa}B-Mediated PTP1B Expression.
I.-C. Yu, H.-Y. Lin, N.-C. Liu, J. D. Sparks, S. Yeh, L.-Y. Fang, L. Chen, and C. Chang (2013)
Diabetes 62, 411-423
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Binge Drinking Induces Whole-Body Insulin Resistance by Impairing Hypothalamic Insulin Action.
C. Lindtner, T. Scherer, E. Zielinski, N. Filatova, M. Fasshauer, N. K. Tonks, M. Puchowicz, and C. Buettner (2013)
Science Translational Medicine 5, 170ra14
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Orexin-A Suppresses Postischemic Glucose Intolerance and Neuronal Damage through Hypothalamic Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor.
S. Harada, Y. Yamazaki, and S. Tokuyama (2013)
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 344, 276-285
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leptin and insulin pathways in POMC and AgRP neurons that modulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis.
L. Varela and T. L. Horvath (2012)
EMBO Rep. 13, 1079-1086
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Insulin reduces excitation in gastric-related neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.
C. B. Blake and B. N. Smith (2012)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 303, R807-R814
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Insulin detemir enhances proglucagon gene expression in the intestinal L cells via stimulating {beta}-catenin and CREB activities.
S. Liu, R. Liu, Y.-T. Chiang, L. Song, X. Li, T. Jin, and Q. Wang (2012)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 303, E740-E751
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Energizing the Mind and Body.
P. Kievit and J. Q. Purnell (2012)
Diabetes 61, 2216-2218
   Full Text »    PDF »
Female reproduction and type 1 diabetes: from mechanisms to clinical findings.
E. Codner, P. M. Merino, and M. Tena-Sempere (2012)
Hum. Reprod. Update 18, 568-585
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Intranasal Insulin Suppresses Food Intake via Enhancement of Brain Energy Levels in Humans.
K. Jauch-Chara, A. Friedrich, M. Rezmer, U. H. Melchert, H. G. Scholand-Engler, M. Hallschmid, and K. M. Oltmanns (2012)
Diabetes 61, 2261-2268
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Salt sensitivity of nitric oxide generation and blood pressure in mice with targeted knockout of the insulin receptor from the renal tubule.
L. Li, R. M. Garikepati, S. Tsukerman, S. Tiwari, and C. M. Ecelbarger (2012)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 303, R505-R512
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The lack of effect of insulin on luteinizing hormone pulsatility in healthy male volunteers provides evidence of a sexual dimorphism in the metabolic regulation of reproductive hormones.
M.-H. Pesant, A. Dwyer, P. Marques Vidal, P. Schneiter, V. Giusti, L. Tappy, and F. P. Pralong (2012)
Am J Clin Nutr 96, 283-288
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Kisspeptins and Reproduction: Physiological Roles and Regulatory Mechanisms.
L. Pinilla, E. Aguilar, C. Dieguez, R. P. Millar, and M. Tena-Sempere (2012)
Physiol Rev 92, 1235-1316
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A New Role for Pancreatic Insulin in the Male Reproductive Axis.
M. R. Loeken (2012)
Diabetes 61, 1667-1668
   Full Text »    PDF »
CREB Binding Protein (CBP) Activation Is Required for Luteinizing Hormone Beta Expression and Normal Fertility in Mice.
R. S. Miller, A. Wolfe, L. He, S. Radovick, and F. E. Wondisford (2012)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 32, 2349-2358
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Insulin Rescues Impaired Spermatogenesis via the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Akita Diabetic Mice and Restores Male Fertility.
E. L. Schoeller, G. Albanna, A. I. Frolova, and K. H. Moley (2012)
Diabetes 61, 1869-1878
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fat intake modulates cerebral blood flow in homeostatic and gustatory brain areas in humans.
S. Frank, K. Linder, S. Kullmann, M. Heni, C. Ketterer, M. Cavusoglu, A. Krzeminski, A. Fritsche, H.-U. Haring, H. Preissl, et al. (2012)
Am J Clin Nutr 95, 1342-1349
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Balancing ovulation and anovulation: integration of the reproductive and energy balance axes by neuropeptides.
J. J. Evans and G. M. Anderson (2012)
Hum. Reprod. Update 18, 313-332
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Is Insulin Action in the Brain Clinically Relevant?.
B. M. Filippi, P. I. Mighiu, and T. K. T. Lam (2012)
Diabetes 61, 773-775
   Full Text »    PDF »
Hypoglycemia, hyperglucagonemia, and fetoplacental defects in glucagon receptor knockout mice: a role for glucagon action in pregnancy maintenance.
S. Ouhilal, P. Vuguin, L. Cui, X.-Q. Du, R. W. Gelling, S. E. Reznik, R. Russell, A. F. Parlow, C. Karpovsky, N. Santoro, et al. (2012)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 302, E522-E531
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
High prevalence of hirsutism and menstrual disorders in obese adolescent girls and adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus despite different hormonal profiles.
D. Samara-Boustani, A. Colmenares, C. Elie, M. Dabbas, J. Beltrand, V. Caron, C. Ricour, P. Jacquin, N. Tubiana-Rufi, C. Levy-Marchal, et al. (2012)
Eur. J. Endocrinol. 166, 307-316
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chronic reduction of insulin receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamus produces glucose intolerance and islet dysfunction in the absence of weight gain.
S. A. Paranjape, O. Chan, W. Zhu, A. M. Horblitt, C. A. Grillo, S. Wilson, L. Reagan, and R. S. Sherwin (2011)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 301, E978-E983
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Circadian intervention of obesity development via resting-stage feeding manipulation or oxytocin treatment.
G. Zhang and D. Cai (2011)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 301, E1004-E1012
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Quantification of sleep behavior and of its impact on the cross-talk between the brain and peripheral metabolism.
E. C. Hanlon and E. Van Cauter (2011)
PNAS 108, 15609-15616
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Reproductive dysfunction and decreased GnRH neurogenesis in a mouse model of CHARGE syndrome.
W. S. Layman, E. A. Hurd, and D. M. Martin (2011)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 20, 3138-3150
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Low Estradiol Concentrations in Men With Subnormal Testosterone Concentrations and Type 2 Diabetes.
S. Dhindsa, R. Furlanetto, M. Vora, H. Ghanim, A. Chaudhuri, and P. Dandona (2011)
Diabetes Care 34, 1854-1859
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effects of Adiposity on Plasma Lipid Response to Reductions in Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids and Cholesterol.
M. R. Flock, M. H. Green, and P. M. Kris-Etherton (2011)
Adv Nutr 2, 261-274
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Insulin-like Growth Factor 1-mediated Hyperthermia Involves Anterior Hypothalamic Insulin Receptors.
M. Sanchez-Alavez, O. Osborn, I. V. Tabarean, K. H. Holmberg, J. Eberwine, C. R. Kahn, and T. Bartfai (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 14983-14990
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leptin and the Central Nervous System Control of Glucose Metabolism.
G. J. Morton and M. W. Schwartz (2011)
Physiol Rev 91, 389-411
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Diabetes in Mice With Selective Impairment of Insulin Action in Glut4-Expressing Tissues.
H. V. Lin, H. Ren, V. T. Samuel, H.-Y. Lee, T. Y. Lu, G. I. Shulman, and D. Accili (2011)
Diabetes 60, 700-709
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The C. elegans DAF-2 Insulin-Like Receptor is Abundantly Expressed in the Nervous System and Regulated by Nutritional Status.
K. D. Kimura, D. L. Riddle, and G. Ruvkun (2011)
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 76, 113-120
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Leptin Rapidly Improves Glucose Homeostasis in Obese Mice by Increasing Hypothalamic Insulin Sensitivity.
C. Koch, R. A. Augustine, J. Steger, G. K. Ganjam, J. Benzler, C. Pracht, C. Lowe, M. W. Schwartz, P. R. Shepherd, G. M. Anderson, et al. (2010)
J. Neurosci. 30, 16180-16187
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Brain Insulin Action Regulates Hypothalamic Glucose Sensing and the Counterregulatory Response to Hypoglycemia.
K. A. Diggs-Andrews, X. Zhang, Z. Song, D. Daphna-Iken, V. H. Routh, and S. J. Fisher (2010)
Diabetes 59, 2271-2280
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
T-Cell Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Attenuates STAT3 and Insulin Signaling in the Liver to Regulate Gluconeogenesis.
A. Fukushima, K. Loh, S. Galic, B. Fam, B. Shields, F. Wiede, M. L. Tremblay, M. J. Watt, S. Andrikopoulos, and T. Tiganis (2010)
Diabetes 59, 1906-1914
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Testosterone Concentrations in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Obese Men.
S. Dhindsa, M. G. Miller, C. L. McWhirter, D. E. Mager, H. Ghanim, A. Chaudhuri, and P. Dandona (2010)
Diabetes Care 33, 1186-1192
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Targeting Intermediary Metabolism in the Hypothalamus as a Mechanism to Regulate Appetite.
G. D. Lopaschuk, J. R. Ussher, and J. S. Jaswal (2010)
Pharmacol. Rev. 62, 237-264
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Simultaneous Characterization of Glyco- and Phosphoproteomes of Mouse Brain Membrane Proteome with Electrostatic Repulsion Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography.
H. Zhang, T. Guo, X. Li, A. Datta, J. E. Park, J. Yang, S. K. Lim, J. P. Tam, and S. K. Sze (2010)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 9, 635-647
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
PDK-1/FoxO1 pathway in POMC neurons regulates Pomc expression and food intake.
K. Iskandar, Y. Cao, Y. Hayashi, M. Nakata, E. Takano, T. Yada, C. Zhang, W. Ogawa, M. Oki, S. Chua Jr., et al. (2010)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298, E787-E798
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hypothalamic and pituitary c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 signaling coordinately regulates glucose metabolism.
B. F. Belgardt, J. Mauer, F. T. Wunderlich, M. B. Ernst, M. Pal, G. Spohn, H. S. Bronneke, S. Brodesser, B. Hampel, A. C. Schauss, et al. (2010)
PNAS 107, 6028-6033
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Divergent Regulation of Energy Expenditure and Hepatic Glucose Production by Insulin Receptor in Agouti-Related Protein and POMC Neurons.
H. V. Lin, L. Plum, H. Ono, R. Gutierrez-Juarez, M. Shanabrough, E. Borok, T. L. Horvath, L. Rossetti, and D. Accili (2010)
Diabetes 59, 337-346
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evaluation of the lack of anorectic effect of intracerebroventricular insulin in rats.
L. Jessen, D. J. Clegg, and S. D. Bouman (2010)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 298, R43-R50
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Diet-Induced Obesity in Male Mice Is Associated with Reduced Fertility and Potentiation of Acrylamide-Induced Reproductive Toxicity.
B. I. Ghanayem, R. Bai, G. E. Kissling, G. Travlos, and U. Hoffler (2010)
Biol Reprod 82, 96-104
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hormone and glucose signalling in POMC and AgRP neurons.
B. F. Belgardt, T. Okamura, and J. C. Bruning (2009)
J. Physiol. 587, 5305-5314
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Where Does Insulin Resistance Start?: The brain.
U. Pagotto (2009)
Diabetes Care 32, S174-S177
   Full Text »    PDF »
High-fat diets induce a rapid loss of the insulin anorectic response in the amygdala.
S. Boghossian, K. Lemmon, M. Park, and D. A. York (2009)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 297, R1302-R1311
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neuronal IGF-1 resistance reduces A{beta} accumulation and protects against premature death in a model of Alzheimer's disease.
S. Freude, M. M. Hettich, C. Schumann, O. Stohr, L. Koch, C. Kohler, M. Udelhoven, U. Leeser, M. Muller, N. Kubota, et al. (2009)
FASEB J 23, 3315-3324
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Enhanced Stat3 Activation in POMC Neurons Provokes Negative Feedback Inhibition of Leptin and InsulinSignaling in Obesity.
M. B. Ernst, C. M. Wunderlich, S. Hess, M. Paehler, A. Mesaros, S. B. Koralov, A. Kleinridders, A. Husch, H. Munzberg, B. Hampel, et al. (2009)
J. Neurosci. 29, 11582-11593
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The 6th Annual World Congress on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome.
Z. T. Bloomgarden (2009)
Diabetes Care 32, e104-e111
   Full Text »    PDF »
Hypothalamic Reactive Oxygen Species Are Required for Insulin-Induced Food Intake Inhibition: An NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Mechanism.
T. Jaillard, M. Roger, A. Galinier, P. Guillou, A. Benani, C. Leloup, L. Casteilla, L. Penicaud, and A. Lorsignol (2009)
Diabetes 58, 1544-1549
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CNS Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis.
C. K. L. Lam, M. Chari, and T. K. T. Lam (2009)
Physiology 24, 159-170
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Getting the message across: mechanisms of physiological cross talk by adipose tissue.
D.-E. Lee, S. Kehlenbrink, H. Lee, M. Hawkins, and J. S. Yudkin (2009)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 296, E1210-E1229
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Awake Intranasal Insulin Delivery Modifies Protein Complexes and Alters Memory, Anxiety, and Olfactory Behaviors.
D. R. Marks, K. Tucker, M. A. Cavallin, T. G. Mast, and D. A. Fadool (2009)
J. Neurosci. 29, 6734-6751
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
C/EBP{beta} regulates body composition, energy balance-related hormones and tumor growth.
J. Staiger, M. J. Lueben, D. Berrigan, R. Malik, S. N. Perkins, S. D. Hursting, and P. F. Johnson (2009)
Carcinogenesis 30, 832-840
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dicer-1-dependent Dacapo suppression acts downstream of Insulin receptor in regulating cell division of Drosophila germline stem cells.
J.-Y. Yu, S. H. Reynolds, S. D. Hatfield, H. R. Shcherbata, K. A. Fischer, E. J. Ward, D. Long, Y. Ding, and H. Ruohola-Baker (2009)
Development 136, 1497-1507
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Insulin blunts the response of glucose-excited neurons in the ventrolateral-ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus to decreased glucose.
V. E. Cotero and V. H. Routh (2009)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 296, E1101-E1109
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
From the Triumvirate to the Ominous Octet: A New Paradigm for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
R. A. DeFronzo (2009)
Diabetes 58, 773-795
   Full Text »    PDF »
{beta}-Cell Hyperplasia Induced by Hepatic Insulin Resistance: Role of a Liver-Pancreas Endocrine Axis Through Insulin Receptor A Isoform.
O. Escribano, C. Guillen, C. Nevado, A. Gomez-Hernandez, C. R. Kahn, and M. Benito (2009)
Diabetes 58, 820-828
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Insulin, leptin, and food reward: update 2008.
D. P. Figlewicz and S. C. Benoit (2009)
Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 296, R9-R19
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hyperleptinaemia rather than fasting hyperinsulinaemia is associated with obesity following hypothalamic damage in children.
M G. Shaikh, R. G Grundy, and J. M W Kirk (2008)
Eur. J. Endocrinol. 159, 791-797
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fasting-induced suppression of LH secretion does not require activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels.
W. Huang, M. Acosta-Martinez, T. H. Horton, and J. E. Levine (2008)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295, E1439-E1446
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
C. elegans dauer formation and the molecular basis of plasticity.
N. Fielenbach and A. Antebi (2008)
Genes & Dev. 22, 2149-2165
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Loss of Neuroprotective Survival Signal in Mice Lacking Insulin Receptor Gene in Rod Photoreceptor Cells.
A. Rajala, M. Tanito, Y. Z. Le, C. R. Kahn, and R. V. S. Rajala (2008)
J. Biol. Chem. 283, 19781-19792
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A high-carbohydrate diet in the immediate postnatal life of rats induces adaptations predisposing to adult-onset obesity.
M. Srinivasan, P. Mitrani, G. Sadhanandan, C. Dodds, S. Shbeir-ElDika, S. Thamotharan, H. Ghanim, P. Dandona, S. U Devaskar, and M. S Patel (2008)
J. Endocrinol. 197, 565-574
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Insulin receptor and lipid metabolism pathology in ataxin-2 knock-out mice.
I. Lastres-Becker, S. Brodesser, D. Lutjohann, M. Azizov, J. Buchmann, E. Hintermann, K. Sandhoff, A. Schurmann, J. Nowock, and G. Auburger (2008)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 17, 1465-1481
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Overview of human obesity and central mechanisms regulating energy homeostasis.
V. E. F. Crowley (2008)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 45, 245-255
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Hypothalamic pathways linking energy balance and reproduction.
J. W. Hill, J. K. Elmquist, and C. F. Elias (2008)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 294, E827-E832
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neurocircuits integrating hormone and nutrient signaling in control of glucose metabolism.
E. Rother, A. C. Konner, and J. C. Bruning (2008)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 294, E810-E816
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882