Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 290 (5490): 333-337

Copyright © 2000 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Localized Rac Activation Dynamics Visualized in Living Cells

Vadim S. Kraynov,1* Chester Chamberlain,1* Gary M. Bokoch,12 Martin A. Schwartz,3 Sarah Slabaugh,1 Klaus M. Hahn1dagger

Signaling proteins are thought to be tightly regulated spatially and temporally in order to generate specific and localized effects. For Rac and other small guanosine triphosphatases, binding to guanosine triphosphate leads to interaction with downstream targets and regulates subcellular localization. A method called FLAIR (fluorescence activation indicator for Rho proteins) was developed to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the Rac1 nucleotide state in living cells. FLAIR revealed precise spatial control of growth factor-induced Rac activation, in membrane ruffles and in a gradient of activation at the leading edge of motile cells. FLAIR exemplifies a generally applicable approach for examining spatio-temporal control of protein activity.

Departments of
1 Cell Biology,
2 Immunology, and
3 Vascular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
*   These authors contributed equally to this work.

dagger    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: khahn{at}

The {beta}-actin mRNA zipcode regulates epithelial adherens junction assembly but not maintenance.
N. Gutierrez, I. Eromobor, R. J. Petrie, P. Vedula, L. Cruz, and A. J. Rodriguez (2014)
RNA 20, 689-701
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fluctuation of Rac1 activity is associated with the phenotypic and transcriptional heterogeneity of glioma cells.
H. Yukinaga, C. Shionyu, E. Hirata, K. Ui-Tei, T. Nagashima, S. Kondo, M. Okada-Hatakeyama, H. Naoki, and M. Matsuda (2014)
J. Cell Sci. 127, 1805-1815
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Rac-GAP Bcr is a novel regulator of the Par complex that controls cell polarity.
A. S. Narayanan, S. B. Reyes, K. Um, J. H. McCarty, and K. F. Tolias (2013)
Mol. Biol. Cell 24, 3857-3868
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Rho GTPases orient directional sensing in chemotaxis.
Y. Wang, H. Senoo, H. Sesaki, and M. Iijima (2013)
PNAS 110, E4723-E4732
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Rac1 Activation in Podocytes Induces Rapid Foot Process Effacement and Proteinuria.
H. Yu, H. Suleiman, A. H. J. Kim, J. H. Miner, A. Dani, A. S. Shaw, and S. Akilesh (2013)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 33, 4755-4764
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CPK3-phosphorylated RhoGDI1 is essential in the development of Arabidopsis seedlings and leaf epidermal cells.
Y. Wu, S. Zhao, H. Tian, Y. He, W. Xiong, L. Guo, and Y. Wu (2013)
J. Exp. Bot. 64, 3327-3338
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A novel pathway spatiotemporally activates Rac1 and redox signaling in response to fluid shear stress.
Y. Liu, C. Collins, W. B. Kiosses, A. M. Murray, M. Joshi, T. R. Shepherd, E. J. Fuentes, and E. Tzima (2013)
J. Cell Biol. 201, 863-873
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Reciprocal regulation of PKA and Rac signaling.
V. A. Bachmann, A. Riml, R. G. Huber, G. S. Baillie, K. R. Liedl, T. Valovka, and E. Stefan (2013)
PNAS 110, 8531-8536
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
GDNF and Endothelin 3 Regulate Migration of Enteric Neural Crest-Derived Cells via Protein Kinase A and Rac1.
A. Goto, K. Sumiyama, Y. Kamioka, E. Nakasyo, K. Ito, M. Iwasaki, H. Enomoto, and M. Matsuda (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 4901-4912
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Millisecond spatiotemporal dynamics of FRET biosensors by the pair correlation function and the phasor approach to FLIM.
E. Hinde, M. A. Digman, K. M. Hahn, and E. Gratton (2013)
PNAS 110, 135-140
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Synthetic spatially graded Rac activation drives cell polarization and movement.
B. Lin, W. R. Holmes, C. J. Wang, T. Ueno, A. Harwell, L. Edelstein-Keshet, T. Inoue, and A. Levchenko (2012)
PNAS 109, E3668-E3677
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Activity of PLC{varepsilon} contributes to chemotaxis of fibroblasts towards PDGF.
M. Martins, S. Warren, C. Kimberley, A. Margineanu, P. Peschard, A. McCarthy, M. Yeo, C. J. Marshall, C. Dunsby, P. M. W. French, et al. (2012)
J. Cell Sci. 125, 5758-5769
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tiam1 interaction with the PAR complex promotes talin-mediated Rac1 activation during polarized cell migration.
S. Wang, T. Watanabe, K. Matsuzawa, A. Katsumi, M. Kakeno, T. Matsui, F. Ye, K. Sato, K. Murase, I. Sugiyama, et al. (2012)
J. Cell Biol. 199, 331-345
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nodal signaling regulates endodermal cell motility and actin dynamics via Rac1 and Prex1.
S. Woo, M. P. Housley, O. D. Weiner, and D. Y. R. Stainier (2012)
J. Cell Biol. 198, 941-952
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Oxidized LDL/CD36 interaction induces loss of cell polarity and inhibits macrophage locomotion.
Y. M. Park, J. A. Drazba, A. Vasanji, T. Egelhoff, M. Febbraio, and R. L. Silverstein (2012)
Mol. Biol. Cell 23, 3057-3068
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP2 is an effector of RhoA and is involved in cell polarity and migration.
K. Kato, T. Yazawa, K. Taki, K. Mori, S. Wang, T. Nishioka, T. Hamaguchi, T. Itoh, T. Takenawa, C. Kataoka, et al. (2012)
Mol. Biol. Cell 23, 2593-2604
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
FRET imaging and statistical signal processing reveal positive and negative feedback loops regulating the morphology of randomly migrating HT-1080 cells.
K. Kunida, M. Matsuda, and K. Aoki (2012)
J. Cell Sci. 125, 2381-2392
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nonpolarized signaling reveals two distinct modes of 3D cell migration.
R. J. Petrie, N. Gavara, R. S. Chadwick, and K. M. Yamada (2012)
J. Cell Biol. 197, 439-455
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Involvement of Beclin 1 in Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells.
A. Konishi, S. Arakawa, Z. Yue, and S. Shimizu (2012)
J. Biol. Chem. 287, 13919-13929
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Governing epidermal homeostasis by coupling cell-cell adhesion to integrin and growth factor signaling, proliferation, and apoptosis.
G. Livshits, A. Kobielak, and E. Fuchs (2012)
PNAS 109, 4886-4891
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 cooperates with LPA signaling to stimulate Rac through AKAP-Lbc-mediated RhoA activation.
K. L. O'Connor, M. Chen, and L. N. Towers (2012)
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 302, C605-C614
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inhibition and Termination of Physiological Responses by GTPase Activating Proteins.
E. Ligeti, S. Welti, and K. Scheffzek (2012)
Physiol Rev 92, 237-272
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
ARHGAP18, a GTPase-activating protein for RhoA, controls cell shape, spreading, and motility.
M. Maeda, H. Hasegawa, T. Hyodo, S. Ito, E. Asano, H. Yuang, K. Funasaka, K. Shimokata, Y. Hasegawa, M. Hamaguchi, et al. (2011)
Mol. Biol. Cell 22, 3840-3852
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Integrins in Cell Migration.
A. Huttenlocher and A. R. Horwitz (2011)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 3, a005074
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Myosin IIA/IIB restrict adhesive and protrusive signaling to generate front-back polarity in migrating cells.
M. Vicente-Manzanares, K. Newell-Litwa, A. I. Bachir, L. A. Whitmore, and A. R. Horwitz (2011)
J. Cell Biol. 193, 381-396
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Spatial Regulation of RhoA Activity during Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasion Driven by Mutant p53.
P. Timpson, E. J. McGhee, J. P. Morton, A. von Kriegsheim, J. P. Schwarz, S. A. Karim, B. Doyle, J. A. Quinn, N. O. Carragher, M. Edward, et al. (2011)
Cancer Res. 71, 747-757
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deletion of ABCA1 and ABCG1 Impairs Macrophage Migration Because of Increased Rac1 Signaling.
T. A. Pagler, M. Wang, M. Mondal, A. J. Murphy, M. Westerterp, K. J. Moore, F. R. Maxfield, and A. R. Tall (2011)
Circ. Res. 108, 194-200
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Type I PIPK-{alpha} regulates directed cell migration by modulating Rac1 plasma membrane targeting and activation.
W.-T. Chao, A. C. Daquinag, F. Ashcroft, and J. Kunz (2010)
J. Cell Biol. 190, 247-262
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Live cell imaging of mechanotransduction.
B. Liu, T. J. Kim, and Y. Wang (2010)
J R Soc Interface 7, S365-S375
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Scaffold Proteins IRSp53 and Spinophilin Regulate Localized Rac Activation by T-lymphocyte Invasion and Metastasis Protein 1 (TIAM1).
S. Rajagopal, Y. Ji, K. Xu, Y. Li, K. Wicks, J. Liu, K. W. Wong, I. M. Herman, R. R. Isberg, and R. J. Buchsbaum (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 18060-18071
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Spatio-temporal Rho GTPase signaling - where are we now?.
O. Pertz (2010)
J. Cell Sci. 123, 1841-1850
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Focal-adhesion targeting links caveolin-1 to a Rac1-degradation pathway.
M. Nethe, E. C. Anthony, M. Fernandez-Borja, R. Dee, D. Geerts, P. J. Hensbergen, A. M. Deelder, G. Schmidt, and P. L. Hordijk (2010)
J. Cell Sci. 123, 1948-1958
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
p23/Tmp21 Differentially Targets the Rac-GAP {beta}2-Chimaerin and Protein Kinase C via Their C1 Domains.
H. Wang and M. G. Kazanietz (2010)
Mol. Biol. Cell 21, 1398-1408
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Live Show of Rho GTPases in Cell Migration.
X. Yan, Y. Shen, and X. Zhu (2010)
J Mol Cell Biol 2, 68-69
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Amiloride inhibits macropinocytosis by lowering submembranous pH and preventing Rac1 and Cdc42 signaling.
M. Koivusalo, C. Welch, H. Hayashi, C. C. Scott, M. Kim, T. Alexander, N. Touret, K. M. Hahn, and S. Grinstein (2010)
J. Cell Biol. 188, 547-563
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The ADMA/DDAH Pathway Regulates VEGF-Mediated Angiogenesis.
L. R. Fiedler, T. Bachetti, J. Leiper, I. Zachary, L. Chen, T. Renne, and B. Wojciak-Stothard (2009)
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 29, 2117-2124
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor-H1 Regulates Cell Migration via Localized Activation of RhoA at the Leading Edge.
P. Nalbant, Y.-C. Chang, J. Birkenfeld, Z.-F. Chang, and G. M. Bokoch (2009)
Mol. Biol. Cell 20, 4070-4082
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cortactin Promotes Migration and Platelet-derived Growth Factor-induced Actin Reorganization by Signaling to Rho-GTPases.
F. P.L. Lai, M. Szczodrak, J. M. Oelkers, M. Ladwein, F. Acconcia, S. Benesch, S. Auinger, J. Faix, J. V. Small, S. Polo, et al. (2009)
Mol. Biol. Cell 20, 3209-3223
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Sequential Regulation of DOCK2 Dynamics by Two Phospholipids During Neutrophil Chemotaxis.
A. Nishikimi, H. Fukuhara, W. Su, T. Hongu, S. Takasuga, H. Mihara, Q. Cao, F. Sanematsu, M. Kanai, H. Hasegawa, et al. (2009)
Science 324, 384-387
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Live-cell microscopy - tips and tools.
M. M. Frigault, J. Lacoste, J. L. Swift, and C. M. Brown (2009)
J. Cell Sci. 122, 753-767
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Integrins in cell migration - the actin connection.
M. Vicente-Manzanares, C. K. Choi, and A. R. Horwitz (2009)
J. Cell Sci. 122, 199-206
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Protein Kinase A Regulates 3-Phosphatidylinositide Dynamics during Platelet-derived Growth Factor-induced Membrane Ruffling and Chemotaxis.
P. B. Deming, S. L. Campbell, L. C. Baldor, and A. K. Howe (2008)
J. Biol. Chem. 283, 35199-35211
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Rac1 accumulates in the nucleus during the G2 phase of the cell cycle and promotes cell division.
D. Michaelson, W. Abidi, D. Guardavaccaro, M. Zhou, I. Ahearn, M. Pagano, and M. R. Philips (2008)
J. Cell Biol. 181, 485-496
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Rapid Turnover Rate of Phosphoinositides at the Front of Migrating MDCK Cells.
T. Nishioka, K. Aoki, K. Hikake, H. Yoshizaki, E. Kiyokawa, and M. Matsuda (2008)
Mol. Biol. Cell 19, 4213-4223
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Determination of hierarchical relationship of Src and Rac at subcellular locations with FRET biosensors.
M. Ouyang, J. Sun, S. Chien, and Y. Wang (2008)
PNAS 105, 14353-14358
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Spatiotemporal activation of Rac1 for engulfment of apoptotic cells.
M. Nakaya, M. Kitano, M. Matsuda, and S. Nagata (2008)
PNAS 105, 9198-9203
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bves directly interacts with GEFT, and controls cell shape and movement through regulation of Rac1/Cdc42 activity.
T. K. Smith, H. A. Hager, R. Francis, D. M. Kilkenny, C. W. Lo, and D. M. Bader (2008)
PNAS 105, 8298-8303
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Selective Labeling of Proteins with Chemical Probes in Living Cells.
M. Z. Lin and L. Wang (2008)
Physiology 23, 131-141
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Profilin induces lamellipodia by growth factor-independent mechanism.
E. Syriani, A. Gomez-Cabrero, M. Bosch, A. Moya, E. Abad, A. Gual, X. Gasull, and M. Morales (2008)
FASEB J 22, 1581-1596
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Tumor Suppressor LKB1 Regulates Lung Cancer Cell Polarity by Mediating cdc42 Recruitment and Activity.
S. Zhang, K. Schafer-Hales, F. R. Khuri, W. Zhou, P. M. Vertino, and A. I. Marcus (2008)
Cancer Res. 68, 740-748
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Spatial and Temporal Regulation of Focal Adhesion Kinase Activity in Living Cells.
X. Cai, D. Lietha, D. F. Ceccarelli, A. V. Karginov, Z. Rajfur, K. Jacobson, K. M. Hahn, M. J. Eck, and M. D. Schaller (2008)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 28, 201-214
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of lamellipodial persistence, adhesion turnover, and motility in macrophages by focal adhesion kinase.
K. A. Owen, F. J. Pixley, K. S. Thomas, M. Vicente-Manzanares, B. J. Ray, A. F. Horwitz, J. T. Parsons, H. E. Beggs, E. R. Stanley, and A. H. Bouton (2007)
J. Cell Biol. 179, 1275-1287
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Forced Unfolding of Proteins Within Cells.
C. P. Johnson, H.-Y. Tang, C. Carag, D. W. Speicher, and D. E. Discher (2007)
Science 317, 663-666
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The calcium-sensing receptor changes cell shape via a beta-arrestin-1 ARNO ARF6 ELMO protein network.
T. Bouschet, S. Martin, V. Kanamarlapudi, S. Mundell, and J. M. Henley (2007)
J. Cell Sci. 120, 2489-2497
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Specific Amino Acid Dependency Regulates the Cellular Behavior of Melanoma.
Y.-M. Fu and G. G. Meadows (2007)
J. Nutr. 137, 1591S-1596S
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Helicobacter pylori CagA Induces AGS Cell Elongation through a Cell Retraction Defect That Is Independent of Cdc42, Rac1, and Arp2/3.
K. M. Bourzac, C. M. Botham, and K. Guillemin (2007)
Infect. Immun. 75, 1203-1213
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Compartmentalisation of Rho regulators directs cell invagination during tissue morphogenesis.
S. Simoes, B. Denholm, D. Azevedo, S. Sotillos, P. Martin, H. Skaer, J. C.-G. Hombria, and A. Jacinto (2006)
Development 133, 4257-4267
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Rho-mDia1 Pathway Regulates Cell Polarity and Focal Adhesion Turnover in Migrating Cells through Mobilizing Apc and c-Src.
N. Yamana, Y. Arakawa, T. Nishino, K. Kurokawa, M. Tanji, R. E. Itoh, J. Monypenny, T. Ishizaki, H. Bito, K. Nozaki, et al. (2006)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 26, 6844-6858
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
RLIP76 (RalBP1) is an R-Ras effector that mediates adhesion-dependent Rac activation and cell migration.
L. E. Goldfinger, C. Ptak, E. D. Jeffery, J. Shabanowitz, D. F. Hunt, and M. H. Ginsberg (2006)
J. Cell Biol. 174, 877-888
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Specificity in reactive oxidant signaling: think globally, act locally.
L. S. Terada (2006)
J. Cell Biol. 174, 615-623
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Localizing NADPH Oxidase-Derived ROS.
M. Ushio-Fukai (2006)
Sci. STKE 2006, re8
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
To stabilize neutrophil polarity, PIP3 and Cdc42 augment RhoA activity at the back as well as signals at the front.
A. Van Keymeulen, K. Wong, Z. A. Knight, C. Govaerts, K. M. Hahn, K. M. Shokat, and H. R. Bourne (2006)
J. Cell Biol. 174, 437-445
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Redox signaling in angiogenesis: Role of NADPH oxidase.
M. Ushio-Fukai (2006)
Cardiovasc Res 71, 226-235
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Multiple Sequence Elements Facilitate Chp Rho GTPase Subcellular Location, Membrane Association, and Transforming Activity.
E. J. Chenette, N. Y. Mitin, and C. J. Der (2006)
Mol. Biol. Cell 17, 3108-3121
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase-Rac1-c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinase Signaling Mediates Collagen I-induced Cell Scattering and Up-Regulation of N-Cadherin Expression in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells.
Y. Shintani, M. J. Wheelock, and K. R. Johnson (2006)
Mol. Biol. Cell 17, 2963-2975
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ghrelin and the Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor Constitute a Novel Autocrine Pathway in Astrocytoma Motility.
V. D. Dixit, A. T. Weeraratna, H. Yang, D. Bertak, A. Cooper-Jenkins, G. J. Riggins, C. G. Eberhart, and D. D. Taub (2006)
J. Biol. Chem. 281, 16681-16690
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Paxillin phosphorylation at Ser273 localizes a GIT1-PIX-PAK complex and regulates adhesion and protrusion dynamics.
A. Nayal, D. J. Webb, C. M. Brown, E. M. Schaefer, M. Vicente-Manzanares, and A. R. Horwitz (2006)
J. Cell Biol. 173, 587-589
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
PTP-PEST Couples Membrane Protrusion and Tail Retraction via VAV2 and p190RhoGAP.
S. K. Sastry, Z. Rajfur, B. P. Liu, J.-F. Cote, M. L. Tremblay, and K. Burridge (2006)
J. Biol. Chem. 281, 11627-11636
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Kiss-and-Coat and Compartment Mixing: Coupling Exocytosis to Signal Generation and Local Actin Assembly.
A. M. Sokac and W. M. Bement (2006)
Mol. Biol. Cell 17, 1495-1502
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neutrophil polarization: Spatiotemporal dynamics of RhoA activity support a self-organizing mechanism..
K. Wong, O. Pertz, K. Hahn, and H. Bourne (2006)
PNAS 103, 3639-3644
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Targeting and activation of Rac1 are mediated by the exchange factor {beta}-Pix.
J. P. ten Klooster, Z. M. Jaffer, J. Chernoff, and P. L. Hordijk (2006)
J. Cell Biol. 172, 759-769
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role of Small GTPases in Endothelial Cytoskeletal Dynamics and the Shear Stress Response.
E. Tzima (2006)
Circ. Res. 98, 176-185
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Activation of Rac1 by RhoG regulates cell migration.
H. Katoh, K. Hiramoto, and M. Negishi (2006)
J. Cell Sci. 119, 56-65
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Imaging Signal Transduction in Living Cells with Fluorescent Proteins.
M. R. Philips (2005)
Sci. STKE 2005, tr28
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Rac1 Is Essential for Platelet Lamellipodia Formation and Aggregate Stability under Flow.
O. J. T. McCarty, M. K. Larson, J. M. Auger, N. Kalia, B. T. Atkinson, A. C. Pearce, S. Ruf, R. B. Henderson, V. L. J. Tybulewicz, L. M. Machesky, et al. (2005)
J. Biol. Chem. 280, 39474-39484
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
IQGAP1 Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Endothelial Cell Migration Through Interacting With Nox2.
S. Ikeda, M. Yamaoka-Tojo, L. Hilenski, N. A. Patrushev, G. M. Anwar, M. T. Quinn, and M. Ushio-Fukai (2005)
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25, 2295-2300
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Spatial regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase during chemotactic cell migration.
A. K. Howe, L. C. Baldor, and B. P. Hogan (2005)
PNAS 102, 14320-14325
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Localized RhoA Activation as a Requirement for the Induction of Membrane Ruffling.
K. Kurokawa and M. Matsuda (2005)
Mol. Biol. Cell 16, 4294-4303
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Rac switch regulates random versus directionally persistent cell migration.
R. Pankov, Y. Endo, S. Even-Ram, M. Araki, K. Clark, E. Cukierman, K. Matsumoto, and K. M. Yamada (2005)
J. Cell Biol. 170, 793-802
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Involvement of a Rac Activator, P-Rex1, in Neurotrophin-Derived Signaling and Neuronal Migration.
M. Yoshizawa, T. Kawauchi, M. Sone, Y. V. Nishimura, M. Terao, K. Chihama, Y.-i. Nabeshima, and M. Hoshino (2005)
J. Neurosci. 25, 4406-4419
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
FMRP interferes with the Rac1 pathway and controls actin cytoskeleton dynamics in murine fibroblasts.
M. Castets, C. Schaeffer, E. Bechara, A. Schenck, E. W. Khandjian, S. Luche, H. Moine, T. Rabilloud, J.-L. Mandel, and B. Bardoni (2005)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 14, 835-844
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Conservation of boundary extension mechanisms between plants and animals.
J. Mathur (2005)
J. Cell Biol. 168, 679-682
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Concentric zones of active RhoA and Cdc42 around single cell wounds.
H. A. Benink and W. M. Bement (2005)
J. Cell Biol. 168, 429-439
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
R-Ras Controls Membrane Protrusion and Cell Migration through the Spatial Regulation of Rac and Rho.
M. A. Wozniak, L. Kwong, D. Chodniewicz, R. L. Klemke, and P. J. Keely (2005)
Mol. Biol. Cell 16, 84-96
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Intracellular Mechanics of Migrating Fibroblasts.
T. P. Kole, Y. Tseng, I. Jiang, J. L. Katz, and D. Wirtz (2005)
Mol. Biol. Cell 16, 328-338
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
SWAP-70 Regulates c-kit-Induced Mast Cell Activation, Cell-Cell Adhesion, and Migration.
R. R. Sivalenka and R. Jessberger (2004)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 24, 10277-10288
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Syndecan-4 Regulates ATF-2 Transcriptional Activity in a Rac1-dependent Manner.
S. Saoncella, E. Calautti, W. Neveu, and P. F. Goetinck (2004)
J. Biol. Chem. 279, 47172-47176
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Coordinating cytoskeletal tracks to polarize cellular movements.
A. Kodama, T. Lechler, and E. Fuchs (2004)
J. Cell Biol. 167, 203-207
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Activation of Rac1 by Paxillin-Crk-DOCK180 Signaling Complex Is Antagonized by Rap1 in Migrating NBT-II Cells.
A. M. Valles, M. Beuvin, and B. Boyer (2004)
J. Biol. Chem. 279, 44490-44496
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882