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Science 291 (5507): 1284-1289

Copyright © 2001 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Human DNA Repair Genes

Richard D. Wood,1* Michael Mitchell,2 John Sgouros,2 Tomas Lindahl1

Cellular DNA is subjected to continual attack, both by reactive species inside cells and by environmental agents. Toxic and mutagenic consequences are minimized by distinct pathways of repair, and 130 known human DNA repair genes are described here. Notable features presently include four enzymes that can remove uracil from DNA, seven recombination genes related to RAD51, and many recently discovered DNA polymerases that bypass damage, but only one system to remove the main DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet light. More human DNA repair genes will be found by comparison with model organisms and as common folds in three-dimensional protein structures are determined. Modulation of DNA repair should lead to clinical applications including improvement of radiotherapy and treatment with anticancer drugs and an advanced understanding of the cellular aging process.

1 Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Clare Hall Laboratories, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Herts EN6 3LD, UK.
2 Imperial Cancer Research Fund, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK.
*   Present address: University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, S867 Scaife Hall, 3550 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Genetic variants in DNA repair pathways and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers: combined analysis of data from two genome-wide association studies in European populations.
M.-C. Babron, R. Kazma, V. Gaborieau, J. McKay, P. Brennan, A. Sarasin, and S. Benhamou (2014)
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Combined Effects of Polymorphisms of DNA-repair Protein Genes and Metabolic Enzyme Genes on the Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma.
L. Zeng, G. You, H. Tanaka, P. Srivatanakul, E. Ohta, C. Viwatthanasittiphong, M. Matharit, D. Chenvidhya, A. Jedpiyawongse, M. Tanaka, et al. (2013)
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 43, 1190-1194
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Influence of genetic polymorphisms on biomarkers of exposure and effects in children living in Upper Silesia.
D. Mielzynska-Svach, E. Blaszczyk, D. Butkiewicz, J. Durzynska, and M. Rydzanicz (2013)
Mutagenesis 28, 591-599
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A Functional Variant at 19q13.3, rs967591G>A, Is Associated with Shorter Survival of Early-Stage Lung Cancer.
H.-S. Jeon, G. Jin, H.-G. Kang, Y. Y. Choi, W. K. Lee, J. E. Choi, E. Y. Bae, S. S. Yoo, S. Y. Lee, E. B. Lee, et al. (2013)
Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 4185-4195
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Genetic variants in DNA repair pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma in a Chinese population.
W.-Q. Li, N. Hu, P. L. Hyland, Y. Gao, Z.-M. Wang, K. Yu, H. Su, C.-Y. Wang, L.-M. Wang, S. J. Chanock, et al. (2013)
Carcinogenesis 34, 1536-1542
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gene Expression Profiles in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Chinese Nickel Refinery Workers with High Exposures to Nickel and Control Subjects.
A. Arita, A. Munoz, Y. Chervona, J. Niu, Q. Qu, N. Zhao, Y. Ruan, K. Kiok, T. Kluz, H. Sun, et al. (2013)
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 22, 261-269
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Copy Number Variations of DNA Repair Genes and the Age-Related Cataract: Jiangsu Eye Study.
J. Jiang, J. Zhou, Y. Yao, R. Zhu, C. Liang, S. Jiang, M. Yang, Y. Lu, Q. Xing, and H. Guan (2013)
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 932-938
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The Associations between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of DNA Repair Genes, DNA Damage, and Age-Related Cataract: Jiangsu Eye Study.
S. Su, Y. Yao, R. Zhu, C. Liang, S. Jiang, N. Hu, J. Zhou, M. Yang, Q. Xing, and H. Guan (2013)
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 1201-1207
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Contribution of XRCC6/Ku70 to Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Taiwan.
C.-M. HSU, M.-D. YANG, W.-S. CHANG, L.-B. JENG, M.-H. LEE, M.-C. LU, S.-C. CHANG, C.-W. TSAI, Y. TSAI, F.-J. TSAI, et al. (2013)
Anticancer Res 33, 529-535
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The Role of XRCC6 T-991C Functional Polymorphism in Renal Cell Carcinoma.
W.-S. CHANG, H.-L. KE, C.-W. TSAI, C.-S. LIEN, W.-L. LIAO, H.-H. LIN, M.-H. LEE, H.-C. WU, C.-H. CHANG, C.-C. CHEN, et al. (2012)
Anticancer Res 32, 3855-3860
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic variation in nucleotide excision repair pathway genes, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk.
K. H. Barry, S. Koutros, G. Andreotti, D. P. Sandler, L. A. Burdette, M. Yeager, L. E. Beane Freeman, J. H. Lubin, X. Ma, T. Zheng, et al. (2012)
Carcinogenesis 33, 331-337
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Quantitative comparison between in vivo DNA adduct formation from exposure to selected DNA-reactive carcinogens, natural background levels of DNA adduct formation and tumour incidence in rodent bioassays.
A. Paini, G. Scholz, M. Marin-Kuan, B. Schilter, J. O'Brien, P. J. van Bladeren, and I. M. C. M. Rietjens (2011)
Mutagenesis 26, 605-618
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase and DNA polymerase {beta} modulate BER inhibitor potentiation of glioma cells to temozolomide.
J.-b. Tang, D. Svilar, R. N. Trivedi, X.-h. Wang, E. M. Goellner, B. Moore, R. L. Hamilton, L. A. Banze, A. R. Brown, and R. W. Sobol (2011)
Neuro Oncology 13, 471-486
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ala499Val (C > T) and Lys939Gln (A > C) polymorphisms of the XPC gene: their correlation with the risk of primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma--a case-control study in China.
X. Jiao, J. Ren, H. Chen, J. Ma, S. Rao, K. Huang, S. Wu, J. Fu, X. Su, C. Luo, et al. (2011)
Carcinogenesis 32, 496-501
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
REPAIRtoire--a database of DNA repair pathways.
K. Milanowska, J. Krwawicz, G. Papaj, J. Kosinski, K. Poleszak, J. Lesiak, E. Osinska, K. Rother, and J. M. Bujnicki (2011)
Nucleic Acids Res. 39, D788-D792
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of Tyrosyl-DNA Phosphodiesterase as a Novel DNA Damage Repair Enzyme in Arabidopsis.
S.-Y. Lee, H. Kim, H.-J. Hwang, Y.-M. Jeong, S. H. Na, J.-C. Woo, and S.-G. Kim (2010)
Plant Physiology 154, 1460-1469
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gamma-radiation sensitivity and polymorphisms in RAD51L1 modulate glioma risk.
Y. Liu, S. Shete, L.-E. Wang, R. El-Zein, C. J. Etzel, F.-W. Liang, G. Armstrong, S. Tsavachidis, M. R. Gilbert, K. D. Aldape, et al. (2010)
Carcinogenesis 31, 1762-1769
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Polymorphisms of the DNA Repair Genes XPD and XRCC1 and the Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.
E. Gorgun, M. Guven, M. Unal, B. Batar, G. S. Guven, M. Yenerel, S. Tatlipinar, M. Seven, and A. Yuksel (2010)
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 4732-4737
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Structure determination of DNA methylation lesions N1-meA and N3-meC in duplex DNA using a cross-linked protein-DNA system.
L. Lu, C. Yi, X. Jian, G. Zheng, and C. He (2010)
Nucleic Acids Res. 38, 4415-4425
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DNA Replication Factor C1 Mediates Genomic Stability and Transcriptional Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis.
Q. Liu, J. Wang, D. Miki, R. Xia, W. Yu, J. He, Z. Zheng, J.-K. Zhu, and Z. Gong (2010)
PLANT CELL 22, 2336-2352
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DDB2 Complex-Mediated Ubiquitylation around DNA Damage Is Oppositely Regulated by XPC and Ku and Contributes to the Recruitment of XPA.
A. Takedachi, M. Saijo, and K. Tanaka (2010)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 30, 2708-2723
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1, HOGG1 and MGMT and micronucleus occurrence in Chinese vinyl chloride-exposed workers.
Q. Wang, F. Ji, Y. Sun, Y.-L. Qiu, W. Wang, F. Wu, W.-b. Miao, Y. Li, P. W. Brandt-Rauf, and Z.-l. Xia (2010)
Carcinogenesis 31, 1068-1073
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Oocyte Numbers in the Mouse Increase after Treatment with 5-Aminoisoquinolinone: A Potent Inhibitor of Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.
H. Qian, J. Xu, M. D. Lalioti, K. Gulle, and D. Sakkas (2010)
Biol Reprod 82, 1000-1007
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Possible Associations of APE1 Polymorphism with Susceptibility and HOGG1 Polymorphism with Prognosis in Gastric Cancer.
Anticancer Res 30, 1359-1364
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The DNA repair gene APE1 T1349G polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 27 case-control studies.
D. Gu, M. Wang, M. Wang, Z. Zhang, and J. Chen (2009)
Mutagenesis 24, 507-512
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
DNA repair gene polymorphisms and risk of cutaneous melanoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
S. Mocellin, D. Verdi, and D. Nitti (2009)
Carcinogenesis 30, 1735-1743
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Sequence Variant Discovery in DNA Repair Genes from Radiosensitive and Radiotolerant Prostate Brachytherapy Patients.
T. J. Pugh, M. Keyes, L. Barclay, A. Delaney, M. Krzywinski, D. Thomas, K. Novik, C. Yang, A. Agranovich, M. McKenzie, et al. (2009)
Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 5008-5016
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Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease (APE1) Gene Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk in Relation To Tobacco Smoking.
Anticancer Res 29, 2417-2420
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Associations between Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes and Glioblastoma.
R. McKean-Cowdin, J. Barnholtz-Sloan, P. D. Inskip, A. M. Ruder, M. Butler, P. Rajaraman, P. Razavi, J. Patoka, J. K. Wiencke, M. L. Bondy, et al. (2009)
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 18, 1118-1126
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Sensitivity to NNKOAc is associated with renal cancer risk.
J. Clague, L. Shao, J. Lin, S. Chang, Y. Zhu, W. Wang, C. G. Wood, and X. Wu (2009)
Carcinogenesis 30, 706-710
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Bladder Cancer and Polymorphisms of DNA Repair Genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, XPG, APE1, hOGG1).
Anticancer Res 29, 1389-1393
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Common Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Genes and Breast Cancer Risk.
K. A. Pooley, C. Baynes, K. E. Driver, J. Tyrer, E. M. Azzato, P. D.P. Pharoah, D. F. Easton, B. A.J. Ponder, and A. M. Dunning (2008)
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 17, 3482-3489
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Association between Polymorphisms in DNA Base Excision Repair Genes XRCC1, APE1, and ADPRT and Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.
F.-Y. Chiang, C.-W. Wu, P.-J. Hsiao, W.-R. Kuo, K.-W. Lee, J.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Liao, and S.-H. H. Juo (2008)
Clin. Cancer Res. 14, 5919-5924
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Variants of DNA Repair Genes and the Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Stones: A Population-Based Study in China.
M. Zhang, W.-Y. Huang, G. Andreotti, Y.-T. Gao, A. Rashid, J. Chen, L. C. Sakoda, M.-C. Shen, B.-S. Wang, S. Chanock, et al. (2008)
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 17, 2123-2127
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human Methyl Purine DNA Glycosylase and DNA Polymerase {beta} Expression Collectively Predict Sensitivity to Temozolomide.
R. N. Trivedi, X.-h. Wang, E. Jelezcova, E. M. Goellner, J.-b. Tang, and R. W. Sobol (2008)
Mol. Pharmacol. 74, 505-516
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Comprehensive association testing of common genetic variation in DNA repair pathway genes in relationship with breast cancer risk in multiple populations.
C. A. Haiman, C. Hsu, P. I.W. de Bakker, M. Frasco, X. Sheng, D. Van Den Berg, J. T. Casagrande, L. N. Kolonel, L. Le Marchand, S. E. Hankinson, et al. (2008)
Hum. Mol. Genet. 17, 825-834
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DNA Repair Gene hOGG1 Codon 326 and XRCC1 Codon 399 Polymorphisms and Bladder Cancer Risk in a Japanese Population.
K. Arizono, Y. Osada, and Y. Kuroda (2008)
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 38, 186-191
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Isolation of XAB2 Complex Involved in Pre-mRNA Splicing, Transcription, and Transcription-coupled Repair.
I. Kuraoka, S. Ito, T. Wada, M. Hayashida, L. Lee, M. Saijo, Y. Nakatsu, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsunaga, H. Handa, et al. (2008)
J. Biol. Chem. 283, 940-950
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Do heat stress and deficits in DNA repair pathways have a negative impact on male fertility?.
C. Paul, D. W. Melton, and P. T.K. Saunders (2008)
Mol. Hum. Reprod. 14, 1-8
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Selected base excision repair gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to biliary tract cancer and biliary stones: a population-based case-control study in China.
W.-Y. Huang, Y.-T. Gao, A. Rashid, L. C. Sakoda, J. Deng, M.-C. Shen, B.-S. Wang, T.-Q. Han, B.-H. Zhang, B. E. Chen, et al. (2008)
Carcinogenesis 29, 100-105
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Prognostic Significance of p53 and X-ray Repair Cross-complementing Group 1 Polymorphisms on Prostate-Specific Antigen Recurrence in Prostate Cancer Post Radical Prostatectomy.
S.-P. Huang, C.-Y. Huang, J.-S. Wang, C.-C. Liu, Y.-S. Pu, H.-J. Yu, C.-C. Yu, T. T. Wu, C.-H. Huang, W.-J. Wu, et al. (2007)
Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 6632-6638
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
High-order interactions among genetic polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair pathway genes and smoking in modulating bladder cancer risk.
M. Chen, A. M. Kamat, M. Huang, H.B. Grossman, C. P. Dinney, S. P. Lerner, X. Wu, and J. Gu (2007)
Carcinogenesis 28, 2160-2165
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
DNA repair capacity of zebrafish.
R. Sussman (2007)
PNAS 104, 13379-13383
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
APEX/Ref-1 (apurinic/apyrimidic endonuclease DNA-repair gene) expression in human and ascidian (Ciona intestinalis) gametes and embryos.
S. El-Mouatassim, S. Bilotto, G. L. Russo, E. Tosti, and Y. Menezo (2007)
Mol. Hum. Reprod. 13, 549-556
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Amino acid substitution polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene MGMT and the susceptibility to cervical carcinoma.
J. Huang, F. Ye, H. Chen, W. Lu, and X. Xie (2007)
Carcinogenesis 28, 1314-1322
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Structural Characterization of Human 8-Oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase Variants Bearing Active Site Mutations.
C. T. Radom, A. Banerjee, and G. L. Verdine (2007)
J. Biol. Chem. 282, 9182-9194
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genotypes, haplotypes and diplotypes of XPC and risk of bladder cancer.
Y. Zhu, M. Lai, H. Yang, J. Lin, M. Huang, H.B. Grossman, C. P. Dinney, and X. Wu (2007)
Carcinogenesis 28, 698-703
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Association of Dnmt3a and thymine DNA glycosylase links DNA methylation with base-excision repair.
Y.-Q. Li, P.-Z. Zhou, X.-D. Zheng, C. P. Walsh, and G.-L. Xu (2007)
Nucleic Acids Res. 35, 390-400
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Increased apoptosis, p53 up-regulation, and cerebellar neuronal degeneration in repair-deficient Cockayne syndrome mice.
R. R. Laposa, E. J. Huang, and J. E. Cleaver (2007)
PNAS 104, 1389-1394
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High-Order Interactions among Genetic Variants in DNA Base Excision Repair Pathway Genes and Smoking in Bladder Cancer Susceptibility.
M. Huang, C. P. Dinney, X. Lin, J. Lin, H. B. Grossman, and X. Wu (2007)
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 16, 84-91
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Reduced Repair of the Oxidative 8-Oxoguanine DNA Damage and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer.
T. Paz-Elizur, R. Ben-Yosef, D. Elinger, A. Vexler, M. Krupsky, A. Berrebi, A. Shani, E. Schechtman, L. Freedman, and Z. Livneh (2006)
Cancer Res. 66, 11683-11689
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Polymorphisms in the DNA Repair Genes XPC, XPD, and XPG and Risk of Cutaneous Melanoma: a Case-Control Analysis.
C. Li, Z. Hu, Z. Liu, L.-E Wang, S. S. Strom, J. E. Gershenwald, J. E. Lee, M. I. Ross, P. F. Mansfield, J. N. Cormier, et al. (2006)
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15, 2526-2532
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genes Involved in DNA Repair and Nitrosamine Metabolism and Those Located on Chromosome 14q32 Are Dysregulated in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma..
L. E. Dodd, S. Sengupta, I-H. Chen, J. A. den Boon, Y.-J. Cheng, W. Westra, M. A. Newton, B. F. Mittl, L. McShane, C.-J. Chen, et al. (2006)
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15, 2216-2225
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
XRCC1 Arg399Gln Genetic Polymorphism in a Turkish Population.
N. A. Kocabas and B. Karahalil (2006)
International Journal of Toxicology 25, 419-422
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic variants of the ADPRT, XRCC1 and APE1 genes and risk of cutaneous melanoma.
C. Li, Z. Liu, L.-E Wang, S. S. Strom, J. E. Lee, J. E. Gershenwald, M. I. Ross, P. F. Mansfield, J. N. Cormier, V. G. Prieto, et al. (2006)
Carcinogenesis 27, 1894-1901
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Base excision repair fidelity in normal and cancer cells.
K. K. L. Chan, Q.-M. Zhang, and G. L. Dianov (2006)
Mutagenesis 21, 173-178
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Association of DNA Repair and Steroid Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms with Clinical Late Toxicity in Patients Treated with Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer.
S. Damaraju, D. Murray, J. Dufour, D. Carandang, S. Myrehaug, G. Fallone, C. Field, R. Greiner, J. Hanson, C. E. Cass, et al. (2006)
Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 2545-2554
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Frequent genomic alterations in epithelium measured by microsatellite instability following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in humans.
P. Faber, P. Fisch, M. Waterhouse, A. Schmitt-Graff, H. Bertz, J. Finke, and A. Spyridonidis (2006)
Blood 107, 3389-3396
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Polymorphisms in the hMSH2 Gene and the Risk of Primary Lung Cancer..
C. Y. Jung, J. E. Choi, J. M. Park, M. H. Chae, H.-G. Kang, K. M. Kim, S. J. Lee, W. K. Lee, S. Kam, S. I. Cha, et al. (2006)
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15, 762-768
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Phosphorylation of Nucleotide Excision Repair Factor Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A by Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated and Rad3-Related-Dependent Checkpoint Pathway Promotes Cell Survival in Response to UV Irradiation..
X. Wu, S. M. Shell, Z. Yang, and Y. Zou (2006)
Cancer Res. 66, 2997-3005
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Polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and risk of non-small cell lung cancer.
S. Zienolddiny, D. Campa, H. Lind, D. Ryberg, V. Skaug, L. Stangeland, D. H. Phillips, F. Canzian, and A. Haugen (2006)
Carcinogenesis 27, 560-567
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The DDB1-CUL4ADDB2 ubiquitin ligase is deficient in xeroderma pigmentosum group E and targets histone H2A at UV-damaged DNA sites.
M. G. Kapetanaki, J. Guerrero-Santoro, D. C. Bisi, C. L. Hsieh, V. Rapic-Otrin, and A. S. Levine (2006)
PNAS 103, 2588-2593
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic polymorphisms in base-excision repair pathway genes and risk of breast cancer..
Y. Zhang, P. A. Newcomb, K. M. Egan, L. Titus-Ernstoff, S. Chanock, R. Welch, L. A. Brinton, J. Lissowska, A. Bardin-Mikolajczak, B. Peplonska, et al. (2006)
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15, 353-358
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Down-regulation of DNA mismatch repair proteins in human and murine tumor spheroids: implications for multicellular resistance to alkylating agents.
G. Francia, S. K. Green, G. Bocci, S. Man, U. Emmenegger, J. M.L. Ebos, A. Weinerman, Y. Shaked, and R. S. Kerbel (2005)
Mol. Cancer Ther. 4, 1484-1494
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Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes in the molecular pathogenesis of esophageal (Barrett) adenocarcinoma.
A. G. Casson, Z. Zheng, S. C. Evans, P. J. Veugelers, G. A. Porter, and D. L. Guernsey (2005)
Carcinogenesis 26, 1536-1541
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The Role of Base Excision Repair in the Sensitivity and Resistance to Temozolomide-Mediated Cell Death.
R. N. Trivedi, K. H. Almeida, J. L. Fornsaglio, S. Schamus, and R. W. Sobol (2005)
Cancer Res. 65, 6394-6400
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic Variants of DNA Repair Genes and Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study.
J. D. Ritchey, W.-Y. Huang, A. P. Chokkalingam, Y.-T. Gao, J. Deng, P. Levine, F. Z. Stanczyk, and A. W. Hsing (2005)
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14, 1703-1709
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Oxidative Damage and Defective DNA Repair is Linked to Apoptosis of Migrating Neurons and Progenitors During Cerebral Cortex Development in Ku70-Deficient Mice.
R. Narasimhaiah, A. Tuchman, S. L. Lin, and J. R. Naegele (2005)
Cereb Cortex 15, 696-707
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Developmental Regulation and In Vitro Culture Effects on Expression of DNA Repair and Cell Cycle Checkpoint Control Genes in Rhesus Monkey Oocytes and Embryos.
P. Zheng, R. D. Schramm, and K. E. Latham (2005)
Biol Reprod 72, 1359-1369
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Mismatch Repair System and Aging: Microsatellite Instability in Peripheral Blood Cells From Differently Aged Participants.
S. Neri, A. Gardini, A. Facchini, F. Olivieri, C. Franceschi, G. Ravaglia, and E. Mariani (2005)
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60, 285-292
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Tumor Suppressor APC Blocks DNA Polymerase {beta}-dependent Strand Displacement Synthesis during Long Patch but Not Short Patch Base Excision Repair and Increases Sensitivity to Methylmethane Sulfonate.
S. Narayan, A. S. Jaiswal, and R. Balusu (2005)
J. Biol. Chem. 280, 6942-6949
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Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in colorectal cancer: preclinical data and therapeutic perspectives.
J. P. Spano, R. Fagard, J.-C. Soria, O. Rixe, D. Khayat, and G. Milano (2005)
Ann. Onc. 16, 189-194
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Polymorphisms in DNA Base Excision Repair Genes ADPRT and XRCC1 and Risk of Lung Cancer.
X. Zhang, X. Miao, G. Liang, B. Hao, Y. Wang, W. Tan, Y. Li, Y. Guo, F. He, Q. Wei, et al. (2005)
Cancer Res. 65, 722-726
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Specific combinations of DNA repair gene variants and increased risk for non-small cell lung cancer.
O. Popanda, T. Schattenberg, C. T. Phong, D. Butkiewicz, A. Risch, L. Edler, K. Kayser, H. Dienemann, V. Schulz, P. Drings, et al. (2004)
Carcinogenesis 25, 2433-2441
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UV Light-induced DNA Damage and Tolerance for the Survival of Nucleotide Excision Repair-deficient Human Cells.
S. Nakajima, L. Lan, S.-i. Kanno, M. Takao, K. Yamamoto, A. P. M. Eker, and A. Yasui (2004)
J. Biol. Chem. 279, 46674-46677
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Irofulven Cytotoxicity Depends on Transcription-Coupled Nucleotide Excision Repair and Is Correlated with XPG Expression in Solid Tumor Cells.
F. Koeppel, V. Poindessous, V. Lazar, E. Raymond, A. Sarasin, and A. K. Larsen (2004)
Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 5604-5613
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Gene Expression Analysis of Tumor Spheroids Reveals a Role for Suppressed DNA Mismatch Repair in Multicellular Resistance to Alkylating Agents.
G. Francia, S. Man, B. Teicher, L. Grasso, and R. S. Kerbel (2004)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 24, 6837-6849
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Human Nucleotide Excision Repair Efficiently Removes Chromium-DNA Phosphate Adducts and Protects Cells against Chromate Toxicity.
M. Reynolds, E. Peterson, G. Quievryn, and A. Zhitkovich (2004)
J. Biol. Chem. 279, 30419-30424
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of Genetic Variants in Base Excision Repair Pathway and Their Associations with Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
B. Hao, H. Wang, K. Zhou, Y. Li, X. Chen, G. Zhou, Y. Zhu, X. Miao, W. Tan, Q. Wei, et al. (2004)
Cancer Res. 64, 4378-4384
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Involvement of base excision repair in response to therapy targeted at thymidylate synthase.
L. Li, S. H. Berger, and M. D. Wyatt (2004)
Mol. Cancer Ther. 3, 747-753
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
High Specificity of Quantitative Excision Repair Cross-Complementing 1 Messenger RNA Expression for Prediction of Minor Histopathological Response to Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy in Esophageal Cancer.
U. Warnecke-Eberz, R. Metzger, F. Miyazono, S. E. Baldus, S. Neiss, J. Brabender, H. Schaefer, W. Doerfler, E. Bollschweiler, H. P. Dienes, et al. (2004)
Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 3794-3799
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
DNA repair in higher plants; photoreactivation is the major DNA repair pathway in non-proliferating cells while excision repair (nucleotide excision repair and base excision repair) is active in proliferating cells.
S. Kimura, Y. Tahira, T. Ishibashi, Y. Mori, T. Mori, J. Hashimoto, and K. Sakaguchi (2004)
Nucleic Acids Res. 32, 2760-2767
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Large-Scale Screen for Mutagen-Sensitive Loci in Drosophila.
A. Laurencon, C. M. Orme, H. K. Peters, C. L. Boulton, E. K. Vladar, S. A. Langley, E. P. Bakis, D. T. Harris, N. J. Harris, S. M. Wayson, et al. (2004)
Genetics 167, 217-231
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Polymorphisms in DNA repair and metabolic genes in bladder cancer.
S. Sanyal, F. Festa, S. Sakano, Z. Zhang, G. Steineck, U. Norming, H. Wijkstrom, P. Larsson, R. Kumar, and K. Hemminki (2004)
Carcinogenesis 25, 729-734
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interaction of human and bacterial AlkB proteins with DNA as probed through chemical cross-linking studies.
Y. Mishina, C.-H. J. Lee, and C. He (2004)
Nucleic Acids Res. 32, 1548-1554
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Expression of Base Excision DNA Repair Genes Is a Sensitive Biomarker for in Vivo Detection of Chemical-induced Chronic Oxidative Stress: Identification of the Molecular Source of Radicals Responsible for DNA Damage by Peroxisome Proliferators.
I. Rusyn, S. Asakura, B. Pachkowski, B. U. Bradford, M. F. Denissenko, J. M. Peters, S. M. Holland, J. K. Reddy, M. L. Cunningham, and J. A. Swenberg (2004)
Cancer Res. 64, 1050-1057
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deficient Nucleotide Excision Repair Capacity Enhances Human Prostate Cancer Risk.
J. J. Hu, M. C. Hall, L. Grossman, M. Hedayati, D. L. McCullough, K. Lohman, and L. D. Case (2004)
Cancer Res. 64, 1197-1201
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

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