Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 293 (5532): 1074-1080

Copyright © 2001 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Translating the Histone Code

Thomas Jenuwein,1 C. David Allis2

Chromatin, the physiological template of all eukaryotic genetic information, is subject to a diverse array of posttranslational modifications that largely impinge on histone amino termini, thereby regulating access to the underlying DNA. Distinct histone amino-terminal modifications can generate synergistic or antagonistic interaction affinities for chromatin-associated proteins, which in turn dictate dynamic transitions between transcriptionally active or transcriptionally silent chromatin states. The combinatorial nature of histone amino-terminal modifications thus reveals a "histone code" that considerably extends the information potential of the genetic code. We propose that this epigenetic marking system represents a fundamental regulatory mechanism that has an impact on most, if not all, chromatin-templated processes, with far-reaching consequences for cell fate decisions and both normal and pathological development.

1 Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) at the Vienna Biocenter, Dr. Bohrgasse 7, A-1030 Vienna, Austria. E-mail: jenuwein{at}
2 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia Health Science Center, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. E-mail: allis{at}

Modeling the regulatory network of histone acetylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
H. Pham, R. Ferrari, S. J. Cokus, S. K. Kurdistani, and M. Pellegrini (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 3, 153
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cross-talk between phosphorylation and lysine acetylation in a genome-reduced bacterium.
V. van Noort, J. Seebacher, S. Bader, S. Mohammed, I. Vonkova, M. J. Betts, S. Kuhner, R. Kumar, T. Maier, M. O'Flaherty, et al. (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 8, 571
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The PR-Set7 binding domain of Riz1 is required for the H4K20me1-H3K9me1 trans-tail 'histone code' and Riz1 tumor suppressor function.
L. M. Congdon, J. K. Sims, C. T. Tuzon, and J. C. Rice (2014)
Nucleic Acids Res. 42, 3580-3589
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Epigenetic control of plant senescence and linked processes.
N. Ay, B. Janack, and K. Humbeck (2014)
J. Exp. Bot.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evolution and functional cross-talk of protein post-translational modifications.
P. Beltrao, P. Bork, N. J. Krogan, and V. van Noort (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 9, 714
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role of anoctamins in cancer and apoptosis.
P. Wanitchakool, L. Wolf, G. E. Koehl, L. Sirianant, R. Schreiber, S. Kulkarni, U. Duvvuri, and K. Kunzelmann (2014)
Phil Trans R Soc B 369, 20130096
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular basis underlying histone H3 lysine-arginine methylation pattern readout by Spin/Ssty repeats of Spindlin1.
X. Su, G. Zhu, X. Ding, S. Y. Lee, Y. Dou, B. Zhu, W. Wu, and H. Li (2014)
Genes & Dev. 28, 622-636
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
An H3K9/S10 methyl-phospho switch modulates Polycomb and Pol II binding at repressed genes during differentiation.
P. Sabbattini, M. Sjoberg, S. Nikic, A. Frangini, P.-H. Holmqvist, N. Kunowska, T. Carroll, E. Brookes, S. J. Arthur, A. Pombo, et al. (2014)
Mol. Biol. Cell 25, 904-915
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Endometriosis Is Characterized by a Distinct Pattern of Histone 3 and Histone 4 Lysine Modifications.
J. B. Monteiro, M. Colon-Diaz, M. Garcia, S. Gutierrez, M. Colon, E. Seto, J. Laboy, and I. Flores (2014)
Reproductive Sciences 21, 305-318
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Histone Modifications in Crosstalk with H3 Lysine 27 Methylation.
C. Zhang, S. Gao, A. J. Molascon, Y. Liu, and P. C. Andrews (2014)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 13, 749-759
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The N-terminus and Tudor domains of Sgf29 are important for its heterochromatin boundary formation function.
K. Kamata, G. Goswami, S. Kashio, T. Urano, R. Nakagawa, H. Uchida, and M. Oki (2014)
J. Biochem. 155, 159-171
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Ah Receptor Recruits IKK{alpha} to Its Target Binding Motifs to Phosphorylate Serine-10 in Histone H3 Required for Transcriptional Activation.
H. Kurita, M. Schnekenburger, J. L. Ovesen, Y. Xia, and A. Puga (2014)
Toxicol. Sci.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Inheritance of Trans Chromosomal Methylation patterns from Arabidopsis F1 hybrids.
I. K. Greaves, M. Groszmann, A. Wang, W. J. Peacock, and E. S. Dennis (2014)
PNAS 111, 2017-2022
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chromatin meets the cell cycle.
C. Raynaud, A. C. Mallory, D. Latrasse, T. Jegu, Q. Bruggeman, M. Delarue, C. Bergounioux, and M. Benhamed (2014)
J. Exp. Bot.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mutations in Pdd1 Reveal Distinct Requirements for Its Chromodomain and Chromoshadow Domain in Directing Histone Methylation and Heterochromatin Elimination.
R. M. Schwope and D. L. Chalker (2014)
Eukaryot. Cell 13, 190-201
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Evidence for the involvement of epigenetics in the progression of renal fibrogenesis.
B. Tampe and M. Zeisberg (2014)
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 29, i1-i8
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Activation of Histone Deacetylase-6 Induces Contractile Dysfunction Through Derailment of {alpha}-Tubulin Proteostasis in Experimental and Human Atrial Fibrillation.
D. Zhang, C.-T. Wu, X. Qi, R. A. M. Meijering, F. Hoogstra-Berends, A. Tadevosyan, G. Cubukcuoglu Deniz, S. Durdu, A. R. Akar, O. C. M. Sibon, et al. (2014)
Circulation 129, 346-358
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Histone Deacetylase Classes I and II Regulate Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Reactivation.
H. J. Shin, J. DeCotiis, M. Giron, D. Palmeri, and D. M. Lukac (2014)
J. Virol. 88, 1281-1292
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Neurobiological disease etiology and inheritance: an epigenetic perspective.
B. J. Saab and I. M. Mansuy (2014)
J. Exp. Biol. 217, 94-101
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gene regulatory elements of the cardiac conduction system.
K. van Duijvenboden, J. M. Ruijter, and V. M. Christoffels (2014)
Briefings in Functional Genomics 13, 28-38
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CR Cistrome: a ChIP-Seq database for chromatin regulators and histone modification linkages in human and mouse.
Q. Wang, J. Huang, H. Sun, J. Liu, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Q. Qin, S. Mei, C. Zhao, X. Yang, et al. (2014)
Nucleic Acids Res. 42, D450-D458
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Enhanced Trimethylation of Histone H3 Mediates Impaired Expression of Hepatic Glucose 6-Phosphatase Expression in Offspring From Rat Dams Exposed to Hypoxia During Pregnancy.
J. E. Osumek, A. Revesz, J. S. Morton, S. T. Davidge, and D. B. Hardy (2014)
Reproductive Sciences 21, 112-121
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
CPLM: a database of protein lysine modifications.
Z. Liu, Y. Wang, T. Gao, Z. Pan, H. Cheng, Q. Yang, Z. Cheng, A. Guo, J. Ren, and Y. Xue (2014)
Nucleic Acids Res. 42, D531-D536
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors.
M. S. Sasaki, A. Tachibana, and S. Takeda (2013)
J Radiat Res
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Silences Human Cytomegalovirus Transcription in Quiescent Infection Models.
C. G. Abraham and C. A. Kulesza (2013)
J. Virol. 87, 13193-13205
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Histone posttranslational modifications and cell fate determination: lens induction requires the lysine acetyltransferases CBP and p300.
L. Wolf, W. Harrison, J. Huang, Q. Xie, N. Xiao, J. Sun, L. Kong, S. A. Lachke, M. R. Kuracha, V. Govindarajan, et al. (2013)
Nucleic Acids Res. 41, 10199-10214
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) epigenetically regulates CAM activation during hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.
D. Chen, F. Fang, Y. Yang, J. Chen, G. Xu, Y. Xu, and Y. Gao (2013)
Cardiovasc Res 100, 363-373
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Beyond the ENCODE project: using genomics and epigenomics strategies to study enhancer evolution.
N. J. Sakabe and M. A. Nobrega (2013)
Phil Trans R Soc B 368, 20130022
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Identification of Genetic Variants That Affect Histone Modifications in Human Cells.
G. McVicker, B. van de Geijn, J. F. Degner, C. E. Cain, N. E. Banovich, A. Raj, N. Lewellen, M. Myrthil, Y. Gilad, and J. K. Pritchard (2013)
Science 342, 747-749
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Applications of alignment-free methods in epigenomics.
L. Pinello, G. Lo Bosco, and G.-C. Yuan (2013)
Brief Bioinform
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Role of phosphorylated histone H3 serine 10 in DEN-induced deregulation of Pol III genes and cell proliferation and transformation.
Q. Zhong, G. Shi, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, D. Levy, and S. Zhong (2013)
Carcinogenesis 34, 2460-2469
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dissociation of the H3K36 demethylase Rph1 from chromatin mediates derepression of environmental stress-response genes under genotoxic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
C.-Y. Liang, L.-C. Wang, and W.-S. Lo (2013)
Mol. Biol. Cell 24, 3251-3262
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Sequence-specific promoter elements regulate temporal-specific changes in chromatin required for testis-specific activation of the Pgk2 gene.
Z. Yang, H. Yoshioka, and J. R. McCarrey (2013)
Reproduction 146, 501-516
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Epigenetic Regulation and Measurement of Epigenetic Changes.
K. E. Stephens, C. A. Miaskowski, J. D. Levine, C. R. Pullinger, and B. E. Aouizerat (2013)
Biol Res Nurs 15, 373-381
   Abstract »    PDF »
Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Overcomes Drug Resistance through a miRNA-Dependent Mechanism.
T. Murray-Stewart, C. L. Hanigan, P. M. Woster, L. J. Marton, and R. A. Casero Jr (2013)
Mol. Cancer Ther. 12, 2088-2099
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
H4K20 methylation regulates quiescence and chromatin compaction.
A. G. Evertts, A. L. Manning, X. Wang, N. J. Dyson, B. A. Garcia, and H. A. Coller (2013)
Mol. Biol. Cell 24, 3025-3037
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Yeast Phospholipase C Is Required for Normal Acetyl-CoA Homeostasis and Global Histone Acetylation.
L. Galdieri, J. Chang, S. Mehrotra, and A. Vancura (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 27986-27998
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Histone H3 lysine methylation in cognition and intellectual disability disorders.
S. Parkel, J. P. Lopez-Atalaya, and A. Barco (2013)
Learn. Mem. 20, 570-579
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Type I IFNs Downregulate Myeloid Cell IFN-{gamma} Receptor by Inducing Recruitment of an Early Growth Response 3/NGFI-A Binding Protein 1 Complex That Silences ifngr1 Transcription.
S. J. Kearney, C. Delgado, E. M. Eshleman, K. K. Hill, B. P. O'Connor, and L. L. Lenz (2013)
J. Immunol. 191, 3384-3392
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A comparative evaluation on prediction methods of nucleosome positioning.
H. Liu, R. Zhang, W. Xiong, J. Guan, Z. Zhuang, and S. Zhou (2013)
Brief Bioinform
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
H3R42me2a is a histone modification with positive transcriptional effects.
F. Casadio, X. Lu, S. B. Pollock, G. LeRoy, B. A. Garcia, T. W. Muir, R. G. Roeder, and C. D. Allis (2013)
PNAS 110, 14894-14899
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nuclear CaMKII enhances histone H3 phosphorylation and remodels chromatin during cardiac hypertrophy.
S. Awad, M. Kunhi, G. H. Little, Y. Bai, W. An, D. Bers, L. Kedes, and C. Poizat (2013)
Nucleic Acids Res. 41, 7656-7672
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Comparing and Combining Capillary Electrophoresis Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Nano-Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Characterization of Post-translationally Modified Histones.
B. Sarg, K. Faserl, L. Kremser, B. Halfinger, R. Sebastiano, and H. H. Lindner (2013)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 12, 2640-2656
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Deep Sequencing of the Murine Igh Repertoire Reveals Complex Regulation of Nonrandom V Gene Rearrangement Frequencies.
N. M. Choi, S. Loguercio, J. Verma-Gaur, S. C. Degner, A. Torkamani, A. I. Su, E. M. Oltz, M. Artyomov, and A. J. Feeney (2013)
J. Immunol. 191, 2393-2402
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chromatin targeting drugs in cancer and immunity.
R. Prinjha and A. Tarakhovsky (2013)
Genes & Dev. 27, 1731-1738
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Critical Role of p38 and GATA3 in Natural Helper Cell Function.
J.-i. Furusawa, K. Moro, Y. Motomura, K. Okamoto, J. Zhu, H. Takayanagi, M. Kubo, and S. Koyasu (2013)
J. Immunol. 191, 1818-1826
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Epigenetic vulnerability and the environmental influence on health.
M. V. d. M. Gomes and G. G. Pelosi (2013)
Experimental Biology and Medicine 238, 859-865
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
DNA methylation and histone modifications of Wnt genes by genistein during colon cancer development.
Y. Zhang, Q. Li, and H. Chen (2013)
Carcinogenesis 34, 1756-1763
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Position-Effect Variegation, Heterochromatin Formation, and Gene Silencing in Drosophila.
S. C. R. Elgin and G. Reuter (2013)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 5, a017780
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Impaired replication elongation in Tetrahymena mutants deficient in histone H3 Lys 27 monomethylation.
S. Gao, J. Xiong, C. Zhang, B. R. Berquist, R. Yang, M. Zhao, A. J. Molascon, S. Y. Kwiatkowski, D. Yuan, Z. Qin, et al. (2013)
Genes & Dev. 27, 1662-1679
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Chromatin and DNA Replication.
D. M. MacAlpine and G. Almouzni (2013)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 5, a010207
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Detection of differentially methylated gene promoters in failing and nonfailing human left ventricle myocardium using computation analysis.
C. A. Koczor, E. K. Lee, R. A. Torres, A. Boyd, J. D. Vega, K. Uppal, F. Yuan, E. J. Fields, A. M. Samarel, and W. Lewis (2013)
Physiol Genomics 45, 597-605
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
USP49 deubiquitinates histone H2B and regulates cotranscriptional pre-mRNA splicing.
Z. Zhang, A. Jones, H.-Y. Joo, D. Zhou, Y. Cao, S. Chen, H. Erdjument-Bromage, M. Renfrow, H. He, P. Tempst, et al. (2013)
Genes & Dev. 27, 1581-1595
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Molecular Pathways: Environmental Estrogens Activate Nongenomic Signaling to Developmentally Reprogram the Epigenome.
R. L. Y. Wong and C. L. Walker (2013)
Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 3732-3737
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Quantitative assessment of Tet-induced oxidation products of 5-methylcytosine in cellular and tissue DNA.
S. Liu, J. Wang, Y. Su, C. Guerrero, Y. Zeng, D. Mitra, P. J. Brooks, D. E. Fisher, H. Song, and Y. Wang (2013)
Nucleic Acids Res. 41, 6421-6429
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Basic science: Epigenetic programming and the respiratory system.
A. L. Durham and I. M. Adcock (2013)
Breathe 9, 278-288
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Maternal protein restriction leads to enhanced hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression in adult male rat offspring due to impaired expression of the liver X receptor.
T. X. Vo, A. Revesz, G. Sohi, N. Ma, and D. B. Hardy (2013)
J. Endocrinol. 218, 85-97
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Multivalent histone engagement by the linked tandem Tudor and PHD domains of UHRF1 is required for the epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation.
S. B. Rothbart, B. M. Dickson, M. S. Ong, K. Krajewski, S. Houliston, D. B. Kireev, C. H. Arrowsmith, and B. D. Strahl (2013)
Genes & Dev. 27, 1288-1298
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Quantitative Proteomics Reveals That the Specific Methyltransferases Txr1p and Ezl2p Differentially Affect the Mono-, Di- and Trimethylation States of Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27).
C. Zhang, A. J. Molascon, S. Gao, Y. Liu, and P. C. Andrews (2013)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 12, 1678-1688
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
S-Nitrosation of Glutathione Transferase P1-1 Is Controlled by the Conformation of a Dynamic Active Site Helix.
D. Balchin, L. Wallace, and H. W. Dirr (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 14973-14984
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanisms of epigenetic deregulation in lymphoid neoplasms.
Y. Jiang, K. Hatzi, and R. Shaknovich (2013)
Blood 121, 4271-4279
   Full Text »    PDF »
Neuroendocrine tumours: cracking the epigenetic code.
A. Karpathakis, H. Dibra, and C. Thirlwell (2013)
Endocr. Relat. Cancer 20, R65-R82
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Novel Automethylation Reaction in the Aspergillus nidulans LaeA Protein Generates S-Methylmethionine.
A. N. Patananan, J. M. Palmer, G. S. Garvey, N. P. Keller, and S. G. Clarke (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 14032-14045
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Quantitative Dissection and Stoichiometry Determination of the Human SET1/MLL Histone Methyltransferase Complexes.
R. van Nuland, A. H. Smits, P. Pallaki, P. W. T. C. Jansen, M. Vermeulen, and H. T. M. Timmers (2013)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 33, 2067-2077
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Unliganded progesterone receptor-mediated targeting of an RNA-containing repressive complex silences a subset of hormone-inducible genes.
G. P. Vicent, A. S. Nacht, R. Zaurin, J. Font-Mateu, D. Soronellas, F. Le Dily, D. Reyes, and M. Beato (2013)
Genes & Dev. 27, 1179-1197
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Prototypic Lysine Methyltransferase 4 from Archaea with Degenerate Sequence Specificity Methylates Chromatin Proteins Sul7d and Cren7 in Different Patterns.
Y. Niu, Y. Xia, S. Wang, J. Li, C. Niu, X. Li, Y. Zhao, H. Xiong, Z. Li, H. Lou, et al. (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 13728-13740
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The myelodysplastic syndrome as a prototypical epigenetic disease.
J.-P. J. Issa (2013)
Blood 121, 3811-3817
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mouse models in epigenetics: insights in development and disease.
J. Espada and M. Esteller (2013)
Briefings in Functional Genomics 12, 279-287
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Proteomics in epigenetics: new perspectives for cancer research.
T. Bartke, J. Borgel, and P. A. DiMaggio (2013)
Briefings in Functional Genomics 12, 205-218
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
From histones to RNA: role of methylation in cancer.
B. Xhemalce (2013)
Briefings in Functional Genomics 12, 244-253
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Protein Interactions, Post-translational Modifications and Topologies in Human Cells.
J. D. Chavez, C. R. Weisbrod, C. Zheng, J. K. Eng, and J. E. Bruce (2013)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 12, 1451-1467
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Predicting the probability of H3K4me3 occupation at a base pair from the genome sequence context.
M. Ha, S. Hong, and W.-H. Li (2013)
Bioinformatics 29, 1199-1205
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Epigenetic Regulation of Adipogenesis by PHF2 Histone Demethylase.
Y. Okuno, F. Ohtake, K. Igarashi, J. Kanno, T. Matsumoto, I. Takada, S. Kato, and Y. Imai (2013)
Diabetes 62, 1426-1434
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The role of chromatin modifiers in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.
J. S. Butler and S. Y. R. Dent (2013)
Blood 121, 3076-3084
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Epigenetic Thpok silencing limits the time window to choose CD4+ helper-lineage fate in the thymus.
H. Tanaka, T. Naito, S. Muroi, W. Seo, R. Chihara, C. Miyamoto, R. Kominami, and I. Taniuchi (2013)
EMBO J. 32, 1183-1194
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Histone Deacetylase 2 Cell Autonomously Suppresses Excitatory and Enhances Inhibitory Synaptic Function in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons.
J. E. Hanson, L. Deng, D. H. Hackos, S.-C. Lo, B. E. Lauffer, P. Steiner, and Q. Zhou (2013)
J. Neurosci. 33, 5924-5929
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
An Epigenetic Roadmap for Cardiomyocyte Differentiation.
M. S. Parmacek and J. A. Epstein (2013)
Circ. Res. 112, 881-883
   Full Text »    PDF »
Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 Promotes Transcriptional Repression of Integrated Retroviruses.
M. T. D. Bueno, D. Reyes, L. Valdes, A. Saheba, E. Urias, C. Mendoza, O. I. Fregoso, and M. Llano (2013)
J. Virol. 87, 2496-2507
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Proteomic Investigation of Chromatin Functional Domains Reveals Novel Synergisms among Distinct Heterochromatin Components.
M. Soldi and T. Bonaldi (2013)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 12, 764-780
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882