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Science 293 (5537): 2057-2059

Copyright © 2001 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Inhibition of the B. subtilis Regulatory Protein TRAP by the TRAP-Inhibitory Protein, AT

Angela Valbuzzi, Charles Yanofsky*

An anti-TRAP (AT) protein, a factor of previously unknown function, conveys the metabolic signal that the cellular transfer RNA for tryptophan (tRNATrp) is predominantly uncharged. Expression of the operon encoding AT is induced by uncharged tRNATrp. AT associates with TRAP, the trp operon attenuation protein, and inhibits its binding to its target RNA sequences. This relieves TRAP-mediated transcription termination and translation inhibition, increasing the rate of tryptophan biosynthesis. AT binds to TRAP primarily when it is in the tryptophan-activated state. The 53-residue AT polypeptide is homologous to the zinc-binding domain of DnaJ. The mechanisms regulating tryptophan biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis differ from those used by Escherichia coli.

Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
*   To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: yanofsky{at}

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S. Sharma and P. Gollnick (2014)
Nucleic Acids Res.
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gene regulation by substoichiometric heterocomplex formation of undecameric TRAP and trimeric anti-TRAP.
E. C. Ihms, M. Zhou, Y. Zhang, I. R. Kleckner, C. A. McElroy, V. H. Wysocki, P. Gollnick, and M. P. Foster (2014)
PNAS 111, 3442-3447
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Mechanism for pH-dependent gene regulation by amino-terminus-mediated homooligomerization of Bacillus subtilis anti-trp RNA-binding attenuation protein.
J. R. Sachleben, C. A. McElroy, P. Gollnick, and M. P. Foster (2010)
PNAS 107, 15385-15390
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Positions of Trp Codons in the Leader Peptide-Coding Region of the at Operon Influence Anti-Trap Synthesis and trp Operon Expression in Bacillus licheniformis.
A. Levitin and C. Yanofsky (2010)
J. Bacteriol. 192, 1518-1526
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Biochemical Features and Functional Implications of the RNA-Based T-Box Regulatory Mechanism.
A. Gutierrez-Preciado, T. M. Henkin, F. J. Grundy, C. Yanofsky, and E. Merino (2009)
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 73, 36-61
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The nature of the TRAP-Anti-TRAP complex.
M. Watanabe, J. G. Heddle, K. Kikuchi, S. Unzai, S. Akashi, S.-Y. Park, and J. R. H. Tame (2009)
PNAS 106, 2176-2181
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Comparative genomic analysis of T-box regulatory systems in bacteria.
A. G. Vitreschak, A. A. Mironov, V. A. Lyubetsky, and M. S. Gelfand (2008)
RNA 14, 717-735
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Physiological Effects of Anti-TRAP Protein Activity and tRNATrp Charging on trp Operon Expression in Bacillus subtilis.
L. R. Cruz-Vera, M. Gong, and C. Yanofsky (2008)
J. Bacteriol. 190, 1937-1945
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
RNA-based regulation of genes of tryptophan synthesis and degradation, in bacteria.
C. Yanofsky (2007)
RNA 13, 1141-1154
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Substitutions of Thr30 provide mechanistic insight into tryptophan-mediated activation of TRAP binding to RNA.
V. Payal and P. Gollnick (2006)
Nucleic Acids Res. 34, 2933-2942
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis anti-TRAP protein, an antagonist of TRAP/RNA interaction.
M. B. Shevtsov, Y. Chen, P. Gollnick, and A. A. Antson (2005)
PNAS 102, 17600-17605
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Effects of Tryptophan Starvation on Levels of the trp RNA-Binding Attenuation Protein (TRAP) and Anti-TRAP Regulatory Protein and Their Influence on trp Operon Expression in Bacillus subtilis.
W.-J. Yang and C. Yanofsky (2005)
J. Bacteriol. 187, 1884-1891
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Superiority of network motifs over optimal networks and an application to the revelation of gene network evolution.
S. Ott, A. Hansen, S.-Y. Kim, and S. Miyano (2005)
Bioinformatics 21, 227-238
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Cellular Levels of trp RNA-Binding Attenuation Protein in Bacillus subtilis.
B. C. McCabe and P. Gollnick (2004)
J. Bacteriol. 186, 5157-5159
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Recycling of a regulatory protein by degradation of the RNA to which it binds.
G. Deikus, P. Babitzke, and D. H. Bechhofer (2004)
PNAS 101, 2747-2751
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulation of the Tryptophan Biosynthetic Genes in Bacillus halodurans: Common Elements but Different Strategies than Those Used by Bacillus subtilis.
R. Szigeti, M. Milescu, and P. Gollnick (2004)
J. Bacteriol. 186, 818-828
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The trp RNA-Binding Attenuation Protein of Bacillus subtilis Regulates Translation of the Tryptophan Transport Gene trpP (yhaG) by Blocking Ribosome Binding.
H. Yakhnin, H. Zhang, A. V. Yakhnin, and P. Babitzke (2004)
J. Bacteriol. 186, 278-286
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tandem Transcription and Translation Regulatory Sensing of Uncharged Tryptophan tRNA.
G. Chen and C. Yanofsky (2003)
Science 301, 211-213
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genomewide transcriptional changes associated with genetic alterations and nutritional supplementation affecting tryptophan metabolism in Bacillus subtilis.
R. M. Berka, X. Cui, and C. Yanofsky (2003)
PNAS 100, 5682-5687
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Using Studies on Tryptophan Metabolism to Answer Basic Biological Questions.
C. Yanofsky (2003)
J. Biol. Chem. 278, 10859-10878
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Zinc Is Required for Assembly and Function of the Anti-trp RNA-binding Attenuation Protein, AT.
A. Valbuzzi and C. Yanofsky (2002)
J. Biol. Chem. 277, 48574-48578
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Using Hetero-11-mers Composed of Wild Type and Mutant Subunits to Study Tryptophan Binding to TRAP and Its Role in Activating RNA Binding.
P. T. X. Li and P. Gollnick (2002)
J. Biol. Chem. 277, 35567-35573
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
NusA-stimulated RNA polymerase pausing and termination participates in the Bacillus subtilis trp operon attenuation mechanism in vitro.
A. V. Yakhnin and P. Babitzke (2002)
PNAS 99, 11067-11072
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Anti-trp RNA-binding Attenuation Protein (Anti-TRAP), AT, Recognizes the Tryptophan-activated RNA Binding Domain of the TRAP Regulatory Protein.
A. Valbuzzi, P. Gollnick, P. Babitzke, and C. Yanofsky (2002)
J. Biol. Chem. 277, 10608-10613
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Turning Gene Regulation on Its Head.
R. Losick and A. L. Sonenshein (2001)
Science 293, 2018-2019
   Full Text »    PDF »

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