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Science 295 (5558): 1299-1301

Copyright © 2002 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Regulation of Brassinosteroid Signaling by a GSK3/SHAGGY-Like Kinase

Jianming Li,* Kyoung Hee Nam

GSK3/SHAGGY is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase implicated in many signaling pathways in eukaryotes. Although many GSK3/SHAGGY-like kinases have been identified in plants, little is known about their functions in plant growth and development. Here we show that the Arabidopsis BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) gene encodes a GSK3/SHAGGY-like kinase. Gain-of-function mutations within its coding sequence or its overexpression inhibit brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, resulting in plants that resemble BR-deficient and BR-response mutants. In contrast, reduced BIN2 expression via cosuppression partially rescues a weak BR-signaling mutation. Thus, BIN2 acts as a negative regulator to control steroid signaling in plants.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1048, USA.
*   To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jian{at}

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Plant Physiology 135, 2220-2229
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Plant Physiology 130, 577-590
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PNAS 99, 10185-10190
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PNAS 99, 10191-10196
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PNAS 99, 9090-9092
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PLANT CELL 14, S97-S110
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