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PNAS 104 (45): 17879-17884

Copyright © 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences.

Adipogenesis is inhibited by brief, daily exposure to high-frequency, extremely low-magnitude mechanical signals

C. T. Rubin*,{dagger}, E. Capilla{ddagger}, Y. K. Luu*, B. Busa*, H. Crawford{ddagger}, D. J. Nolan§, V. Mittal§, C. J. Rosen||, J. E. Pessin{ddagger}, and S. Judex*

Departments of *Biomedical Engineering and {ddagger}Pharmacology and Graduate Program in Genetics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794; §Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724; and ||The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609

Figure 1
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Fig. 1.. Over the course of the experimental period, no significant differences were measured between average body mass of the B6 CTR ({blacksquare}) relative to LMMS B6 mice (bullet). Weekly food intake over this period was also similar between groups (n ≥ 15 in each group).


Figure 2
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Fig. 2.. A longitudinal (Upper) and transverse (Lower, at level of dotted line) reconstruction of subcutaneous and epididymal fat content through the torso of a CTR (Left) and LMMS (Right) B6 mouse, performed in vivo at 12 weeks by using CT signal parameters specifically sensitive to fat. After 12 weeks of LMMS, the average amount of fat within the torso was 27% lower than that of age-matched CTR.


Figure 3
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Fig. 3.. A summary of phenotypic and biochemical differences between LMMS and CTR B6 mice indicates that LMMS reduces risk factors associated with diabetes. Mean and SD of fat volume in the torso of CTR and LMMS B6 mice, as measured by CT scan (Upper Left), as well as by mass of the epididymal fat pad (Lower Left). Also shown are total TG (Upper Center) and NEFA in adipose tissue (Upper Right) and TG and NEFA in liver (Lower). n = 15 in each group for the CT scans and epididymal mass, n = 8 for measurements in adipose tissue, and n = 12 for the liver. *, P < 0.05.


Figure 4
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Fig. 4.. Transverse CT reconstruction performed in vivo at 9 weeks, with signal sensitivity to adipose tissue, showing fat content through the abdominal region of the torso of a CTR (Left) and LMMS (Right) female 6T mouse. No significant difference in body mass was evident between LMMS and CTR 6T (3.9% less in LMMS), but adipose within the torso was 22% lower in mechanically stimulated animals (P = 0.02).


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