Transforming Growth Factor-ß Signaling in Stem Cells and Cancer
Rik Derynck4, and
1 Cancer Genetics and Digestive Diseases, Medicine & Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA.
2 Laboratory of CNS Development, Department of Surgery, Medicine & Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA.
3 Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC 20049, USA.
4 Departments of Cell and Tissue Biology and Anatomy, Programs in Cell Biology and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
Fig. 1.. Regulation of neural and neuronal differentiation by TGF-ßfamily signaling. The neural crest originates from the dorsal neural tube during the early stages of embryogenesis in vertebrates. Neural crest cells migrate to give rise to diverse cell types, including neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, smooth muscle cells, osteoblasts, and melanocytes. CNS, central nervous system; PNS, peripheral nervous system.
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Fig. 2.. Regulation of endodermal stem cells and differentiation into hepatocytes by TGF-ßfamily signaling. Ventral foregut endoderm cells develop into bipotential hepatoblasts that are committed to fetal hepatocytes. In hepatocarcinogenesis, human hepatic progenitor cells most likely give rise to hepatocellular carcinoma as well as cholangiocarcinomas. The lower part of the figure shows the role of TGF-ßfamily signaling in mesoderm and hematopoietic precursor differentiation.
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