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Science 339 (6120): 704-707

Copyright © 2013 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Regulation of Flowering by Trehalose-6-Phosphate Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana

Vanessa Wahl1,*, Jathish Ponnu2, Armin Schlereth1, Stéphanie Arrivault1, Tobias Langenecker2, Annika Franke1, Regina Feil1, John E. Lunn1, Mark Stitt1, and Markus Schmid2,*

1 Department of Metabolic Networks, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam, Germany.
2 Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Spemannstr. 35, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.


Figure 1
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Fig. 1. Diurnal time course of T6P and flowering-time genes over 72 hours. (A) T6P levels in whole 12- to 14-day-old Col-0 rosettes. Error bars indicate SD of the mean. (B and C) Expression of CO (B) and FT (C) in 12- to 14-day-old Col-0 (solid circles) and tps1-2 GVG:TPS1 (open diamonds) rosettes. Expression was determined by qRT-PCR using three biological replicates with three technical repetitions each and normalized to TUB2. Shaded areas indicate dark periods. Error bars indicate the upper and lower limit of the SD of the mean.

 

Figure 2
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Fig. 2. TPS1 expression and T6P concentrations in the SAM. (A to D) Detection of TPS1 expression by RNA in situ hybridization in the SAM in LD-grown plants 6 days after germination (DAG) (A), 8 DAG (B), 10 DAG (C), and 12 DAG (D). Star indicates meristem summit. Scale bar, 100 μm. (E and F) T6P content in dissected meristems of LD-grown Col-0 plants (E) and 30-day-old SD-grown plants shifted to LD and harvested at 0, 3, and 5 days after the shift (DAS) (F). Error bars denote SD; **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 (Student's t test, based on four biological replicates). (G) Correlation between sucrose and T6P concentration in dissected meristems 0, 3, 5, and 7 days after shift from SD to LD. (H to K) Rosette phenotype of Col-0 (H), 35S:amiR-TPS1 #6 (I), CLV3:otsB #9 (J), and CLV3:TPS1 #7 (K). Scale bar, 1 cm.

 

Figure 3
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Fig. 3. SPL/miR156 module and T6P signaling. (A to D) Flowering-time phenotypes of Col-0 (A), tps1-2 GVG:TPS1 (B), 35S:MIM156 (C), and homozygous tps1-2 GVG:TPS1 35S:MIM156 (D) plants. Scale bar, 1 cm. (E) Expression of SPL3, SPL4, and SPL5 in apices of 21-day-old SD-grown Col-0 (light gray) and tps1-2 GVG:TPS1 (dark gray) as determined by microarray hybridization. Error bars indicate minimum and maximum values of two biological replicates. (F) Expression of SPL3, SPL4, and SPL5 in SD-grown Col-0 (light gray) and tps1-2 GVG:TPS1 (dark gray) plants 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 days after germination. (G) Relative levels of mature miR156 as measured by qRT-PCR in apices of SD-grown Col-0 (light gray) and tps1-2 GVG:TPS1 (dark gray) plants 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 days after germination. Error bars in (F) and (G) denote upper and lower limit of SD of three biological replicates with three technical repetitions each.

 


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