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Sci. STKE, 3 February 2004
Vol. 2004, Issue 218, p. re3
[DOI: 10.1126/stke.2182004re3]

REVIEWS

G Protein Signaling: Insights from New Structures

Anita M. Preininger and Heidi E. Hamm*

Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232–6600, USA.

Gloss: Heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate–binding proteins (G proteins) are a class of intracellular proteins that bind to and are activated by activated G protein–coupled receptors that traverse the cell membrane of a wide variety of cells. A diverse array of ligands binds to and activates GPCRs, including photons, odorants, neurotransmitters, hormones, glycoproteins, and chemokines, leading to diverse biological responses. Heterotrimeric G proteins are made up of α and β{gamma} subunits, and each is involved in signaling to distinct effectors. Determination of the crystal structures of these G proteins has led to a mechanistic understanding of their function, and structures of G proteins in complex with other signaling partners reveal details of how signaling through these highly evolutionarily conserved molecules is regulated within the cell. This STKE Review with seven figures, 2two animations, and 47 citations describes the latest findings and their implications for G protein–signaling paradigms.

*Corresponding author. E-mail: heidi.hamm{at}vanderbilt.edu

Citation: A. M. Preininger, H. E. Hamm, G Protein Signaling: Insights from New Structures. Sci. STKE 2004, re3 (2004).


THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES:
G Protein-coupled Receptor-promoted Trafficking of G{beta}1{gamma}2 Leads to AKT Activation at Endosomes via a Mechanism Mediated by G{beta}1{gamma}2-Rab11a Interaction.
A. Garcia-Regalado, M. L. Guzman-Hernandez, I. Ramirez-Rangel, E. Robles-Molina, T. Balla, J. Vazquez-Prado, and G. Reyes-Cruz (2008)
Mol. Biol. Cell 19, 4188-4200
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Excess of G{beta}e over Gq{alpha}e in vivo prevents dark, spontaneous activity of Drosophila photoreceptors.
N. Elia, S. Frechter, Y. Gedi, B. Minke, and Z. Selinger (2005)
J. Cell Biol. 171, 517-526
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A Highly Conserved Glycine within Linker I and the Extreme C Terminus of G Protein {alpha} Subunits Interact Cooperatively in Switching G Protein-Coupled Receptor-to-Effector Specificity.
E. Kostenis, L. Martini, J. Ellis, M. Waldhoer, A. Heydorn, M. M. Rosenkilde, P. K. Norregaard, R. Jorgensen, J. L. Whistler, and G. Milligan (2005)
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 313, 78-87
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

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