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Science 297 (5578): 63-64

Copyright © 2002 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Also see the archival list of Science's Compass: Enhanced Perspectives

Enhanced: Addiction to Oncogenes--the Achilles Heal of Cancer

I. Bernard Weinstein

A series of recent studies are providing tantalizing hints of new therapeutic approaches for combating cancer. In his Perspective, Weinstein discusses new work (Jain et al.) demonstrating that even brief inactivation of an oncogene can permanently reverse the malignant phenotype of some types of tumor.

The author is at the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. E-mail: weinstei{at}

Evolvable signaling networks of receptor tyrosine kinases: relevance of robustness to malignancy and to cancer therapy.
I. Amit, R. Wides, and Y. Yarden (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 3, 151
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The glucose-deprivation network counteracts lapatinib-induced toxicity in resistant ErbB2-positive breast cancer cells.
K. Komurov, J.-T. Tseng, M. Muller, E. G. Seviour, T. J. Moss, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, and P. T. Ram (2014)
Mol Syst Biol 8, 596
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FAK Inhibition Abrogates the Malignant Phenotype in Aggressive Pediatric Renal Tumors.
M. L. Megison, L. A. Gillory, J. E. Stewart, H. C. Nabers, E. Mrozcek-Musulman, and E. A. Beierle (2014)
Mol. Cancer Res. 12, 514-526
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c-MYC-Induced Genomic Instability.
A. Kuzyk and S. Mai (2014)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 4, a014373
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Interactions of ion transporters and channels with cancer cell metabolism and the tumour microenvironment.
A. P. Andersen, J. M. A. Moreira, and S. F. Pedersen (2014)
Phil Trans R Soc B 369, 20130098
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Tumor heterogeneity in the clinic: is it a real problem?.
F. Janku (2014)
Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology 6, 43-51
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Development of DNA Damage Response Signaling Biomarkers using Automated, Quantitative Image Analysis.
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Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry 62, 185-196
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Proteomic Profiling Identified Multiple Short-lived Members of the Central Proteome as the Direct Targets of the Addicted Oncogenes in Cancer Cells.
T. Qi, W. Zhang, Y. Luan, F. Kong, D. Xu, G. Cheng, and Y. Wang (2014)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 13, 49-62
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Emerging Paradigms in the Development of Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer.
J. F. Gainor and A. T. Shaw (2013)
J. Clin. Oncol. 31, 3987-3996
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The Natural Compound Cantharidin Induces Cancer Cell Death through Inhibition of Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) and Bcl-2-associated Athanogene Domain 3 (BAG3) Expression by Blocking Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1) Binding to Promoters.
J. A. Kim, Y. Kim, B.-M. Kwon, and D. C. Han (2013)
J. Biol. Chem. 288, 28713-28726
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A systematic approach to therapeutic target selection in oesophago-gastric cancer.
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Gut 62, 1415-1424
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Src Mediates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in NSCLC Cells.
S. Filosto, D. S. Baston, S. Chung, C. R. Becker, and T. Goldkorn (2013)
Mol. Cancer Ther. 12, 1579-1590
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Function of oncogenes in cancer development: a changing paradigm.
C. Vicente-Duenas, I. Romero-Camarero, C. Cobaleda, and I. Sanchez-Garcia (2013)
EMBO J. 32, 1502-1513
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In silico discovery of small-molecule Ras inhibitors that display antitumor activity by blocking the Ras-effector interaction.
F. Shima, Y. Yoshikawa, M. Ye, M. Araki, S. Matsumoto, J. Liao, L. Hu, T. Sugimoto, Y. Ijiri, A. Takeda, et al. (2013)
PNAS 110, 8182-8187
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A tale of two approaches: complementary mechanisms of cytotoxic and targeted therapy resistance may inform next-generation cancer treatments.
K. Masui, B. Gini, J. Wykosky, C. Zanca, P. S. Mischel, F. B. Furnari, and W. K. Cavenee (2013)
Carcinogenesis 34, 725-738
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BIM, PUMA, and the Achilles' Heel of Oncogene Addiction.
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Science Signaling 6, pe12
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PUMA and BIM Are Required for Oncogene Inactivation-Induced Apoptosis.
G. R. Bean, Y. T. Ganesan, Y. Dong, S. Takeda, H. Liu, P. M. Chan, Y. Huang, L. A. Chodosh, G. P. Zambetti, J. J.- D. Hsieh, et al. (2013)
Science Signaling 6, ra20
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Fas expression by tumor stroma is required for cancer eradication.
J. J. Listopad, T. Kammertoens, K. Anders, B. Silkenstedt, G. Willimsky, K. Schmidt, A. A. Kuehl, C. Loddenkemper, and T. Blankenstein (2013)
PNAS 110, 2276-2281
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Translational Control in Cancer Etiology.
D. Ruggero (2013)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 5, a012336
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STOP gene Phactr4 is a tumor suppressor.
N. L. Solimini, A. C. Liang, C. Xu, N. N. Pavlova, Q. Xu, T. Davoli, M. Z. Li, K.-K. Wong, and S. J. Elledge (2013)
PNAS 110, E407-E414
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Molecular Pathways: Comparing the Effects of Drugs and T Cells to Effectively Target Oncogenes.
K. Anders and T. Blankenstein (2013)
Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 320-326
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Oncogenes in Cell Survival and Cell Death.
J. Shortt and R. W. Johnstone (2012)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4, a009829
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Translating genomic information into clinical medicine: Lung cancer as a paradigm.
M. A. Levy, C. M. Lovly, and W. Pao (2012)
Genome Res. 22, 2101-2108
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Rescue Screens with Secreted Proteins Reveal Compensatory Potential of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Driving Cancer Growth.
F. Harbinski, V. J. Craig, S. Sanghavi, D. Jeffery, L. Liu, K. A. Sheppard, S. Wagner, C. Stamm, A. Buness, C. Chatenay-Rivauday, et al. (2012)
Cancer Discovery 2, 948-959
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Functional analysis of receptor tyrosine kinase mutations in lung cancer identifies oncogenic extracellular domain mutations of ERBB2.
H. Greulich, B. Kaplan, P. Mertins, T.-H. Chen, K. E. Tanaka, C.-H. Yun, X. Zhang, S.-H. Lee, J. Cho, L. Ambrogio, et al. (2012)
PNAS 109, 14476-14481
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Promising Personalized Therapeutic Options for Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Subtypes with Oncogene Addictions.
J. J. Steinhardt and R. B. Gartenhaus (2012)
Clin. Cancer Res. 18, 4538-4548
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The evolving concept of cancer and metastasis stem cells.
I. Baccelli and A. Trumpp (2012)
J. Cell Biol. 198, 281-293
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Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Leukemia Cells under Basal and Drug-treated Conditions Identifies Markers of Kinase Pathway Activation and Mechanisms of Resistance.
M. P. Alcolea, P. Casado, J.-C. Rodriguez-Prados, B. Vanhaesebroeck, and P. R. Cutillas (2012)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 11, 453-466
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Key concepts in glioblastoma therapy.
J. Bartek Jr, K. Ng, J. Bartek, W. Fischer, B. Carter, and C. C. Chen (2012)
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 83, 753-760
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PTMScan Direct: Identification and Quantification of Peptides from Critical Signaling Proteins by Immunoaffinity Enrichment Coupled with LC-MS/MS.
M. P. Stokes, C. L. Farnsworth, A. Moritz, J. C. Silva, X. Jia, K. A. Lee, A. Guo, R. D. Polakiewicz, and M. J. Comb (2012)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 11, 187-201
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Attacking a Nexus of the Oncogenic Circuitry by Reversing Aberrant eIF4F-Mediated Translation.
P. B. Bitterman and V. A. Polunovsky (2012)
Mol. Cancer Ther. 11, 1051-1061
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Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung: Molecular Subtypes and Therapeutic Opportunities.
P. Perez-Moreno, E. Brambilla, R. Thomas, and J.-C. Soria (2012)
Clin. Cancer Res. 18, 2443-2451
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Cigarette Smoke Induces Aberrant EGF Receptor Activation That Mediates Lung Cancer Development and Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.
S. Filosto, C. R. Becker, and T. Goldkorn (2012)
Mol. Cancer Ther. 11, 795-804
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Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 7/9 Inhibitor SNS-032 Abrogates FIP1-like-1 Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor {alpha} and Bcr-Abl Oncogene Addiction in Malignant Hematologic Cells.
Y. Wu, C. Chen, X. Sun, X. Shi, B. Jin, K. Ding, S.-C. J. Yeung, and J. Pan (2012)
Clin. Cancer Res. 18, 1966-1978
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Activation of GATA binding protein 6 (GATA6) sustains oncogenic lineage-survival in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
L. Lin, A. J. Bass, W. W. Lockwood, Z. Wang, A. L. Silvers, D. G. Thomas, A. C. Chang, J. Lin, M. B. Orringer, W. Li, et al. (2012)
PNAS 109, 4251-4256
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ROS1 Rearrangements in Lung Cancer: A New Genomic Subset of Lung Adenocarcinoma.
P. A. Janne and M. Meyerson (2012)
J. Clin. Oncol. 30, 878-879
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Circumventing Cancer Drug Resistance in the Era of Personalized Medicine.
L. A. Garraway and P. A. Janne (2012)
Cancer Discovery 2, 214-226
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Comprehensive Predictive Biomarker Analysis for MEK Inhibitor GSK1120212.
J. Jing, J. Greshock, J. D. Holbrook, A. Gilmartin, X. Zhang, E. McNeil, T. Conway, C. Moy, S. Laquerre, K. Bachman, et al. (2012)
Mol. Cancer Ther. 11, 720-729
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Chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells are not dependent on Bcr-Abl kinase activity for their survival.
A. Hamilton, G. V. Helgason, M. Schemionek, B. Zhang, S. Myssina, E. K. Allan, F. E. Nicolini, C. Muller-Tidow, R. Bhatia, V. G. Brunton, et al. (2012)
Blood 119, 1501-1510
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An emerging toolkit for targeted cancer therapies.
G. B. Mills (2012)
Genome Res. 22, 177-182
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A SUMOylation-Dependent Transcriptional Subprogram Is Required for Myc-Driven Tumorigenesis.
J. D. Kessler, K. T. Kahle, T. Sun, K. L. Meerbrey, M. R. Schlabach, E. M. Schmitt, S. O. Skinner, Q. Xu, M. Z. Li, Z. C. Hartman, et al. (2012)
Science 335, 348-353
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Ran Is a Potential Therapeutic Target for Cancer Cells with Molecular Changes Associated with Activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 and Ras/MEK/ERK Pathways.
H.-F. Yuen, K.-K. Chan, C. Grills, J. T. Murray, A. Platt-Higgins, O. S. Eldin, K. O'Byrne, P. Janne, D. A. Fennell, P. G. Johnston, et al. (2012)
Clin. Cancer Res. 18, 380-391
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An inducible krasV12 transgenic zebrafish model for liver tumorigenesis and chemical drug screening.
A. T. Nguyen, A. Emelyanov, C. H. V. Koh, J. M. Spitsbergen, S. Parinov, and Z. Gong (2012)
Dis. Model. Mech. 5, 63-72
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Amplification of CRKL Induces Transformation and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor Resistance in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers.
H. W. Cheung, J. Du, J. S. Boehm, F. He, B. A. Weir, X. Wang, M. Butaney, L. V. Sequist, B. Luo, J. A. Engelman, et al. (2011)
Cancer Discovery 1, 608-625
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Overexpressed HER2 in NSCLC is a Possible Therapeutic Target of EGFR Inhibitors.
Anticancer Res 31, 4155-4161
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Chronic Activation of Wild-Type Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Loss of Cdkn2a Cause Mouse Glioblastoma Formation.
J. Acquaviva, H. J. Jun, J. Lessard, R. Ruiz, H. Zhu, M. Donovan, S. Woolfenden, A. Boskovitz, A. Raval, R. T. Bronson, et al. (2011)
Cancer Res. 71, 7198-7206
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New Strategies for Treatment of ALK-Rearranged Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers.
T. Sasaki and P. A. Janne (2011)
Clin. Cancer Res. 17, 7213-7218
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Quantitative Chemical Proteomics Reveals New Potential Drug Targets in Head and Neck Cancer.
Z. Wu, J. B. Doondeea, A. M. Gholami, M. C. Janning, S. Lemeer, K. Kramer, S. A. Eccles, S. M. Gollin, R. Grenman, A. Walch, et al. (2011)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 10, M111.011635
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Oncogene addiction as a foundational rationale for targeted anti-cancer therapy: promises and perils.
D. Torti and L. Trusolino (2011)
EMBO Mol Med. 3, 623-636
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Is Co-option a Prevailing Mechanism during Cancer Progression?.
M. Billaud and M. Santoro (2011)
Cancer Res. 71, 6572-6575
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Lymphomas that recur after MYC suppression continue to exhibit oncogene addiction.
P. S. Choi, J. van Riggelen, A. J. Gentles, P. Bachireddy, K. Rakhra, S. J. Adam, S. K. Plevritis, and D. W. Felsher (2011)
PNAS 108, 17432-17437
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Striking a Balance Between Feasible and Realistic Biological Models.
A. Califano (2011)
Science Translational Medicine 3, 103ps39
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Survival and Death Signals Can Predict Tumor Response to Therapy After Oncogene Inactivation.
P. T. Tran, P. K. Bendapudi, H. J. Lin, P. Choi, S. Koh, J. Chen, G. Horng, N. P. Hughes, L. H. Schwartz, V. A. Miller, et al. (2011)
Science Translational Medicine 3, 103ra99
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Acquired Drug Resistance to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.
Anticancer Res 31, 2787-2796
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Liposomal Delivery of MicroRNA-7-Expressing Plasmid Overcomes Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Resistance in Lung Cancer Cells.
K. Rai, N. Takigawa, S. Ito, H. Kashihara, E. Ichihara, T. Yasuda, K. Shimizu, M. Tanimoto, and K. Kiura (2011)
Mol. Cancer Ther. 10, 1720-1727
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Functional Subtyping of Breast Cancer.
R. L. Beijersbergen and R. Bernards (2011)
Cancer Discovery 1, 205-206
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Dissecting Therapeutic Resistance to RAF Inhibition in Melanoma by Tumor Genomic Profiling.
N. Wagle, C. Emery, M. F. Berger, M. J. Davis, A. Sawyer, P. Pochanard, S. M. Kehoe, C. M. Johannessen, L. E. MacConaill, W. C. Hahn, et al. (2011)
J. Clin. Oncol. 29, 3085-3096
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Genomic biomarkers in predictive medicine. An interim analysis.
R. Simon (2011)
EMBO Mol Med. 3, 429-435
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Heterogeneous Distribution of EGFR Mutations Is Extremely Rare in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Y. Yatabe, K. Matsuo, and T. Mitsudomi (2011)
J. Clin. Oncol. 29, 2972-2977
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An integrated approach to dissecting oncogene addiction implicates a Myb-coordinated self-renewal program as essential for leukemia maintenance.
J. Zuber, A. R. Rappaport, W. Luo, E. Wang, C. Chen, A. V. Vaseva, J. Shi, S. Weissmueller, C. Fellman, M. J. Taylor, et al. (2011)
Genes & Dev. 25, 1628-1640
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Expression of the Adenovirus Early Gene 1A Transcription-Repression Domain Alone Downregulates HER2 and Results in the Death of Human Breast Cancer Cells Upregulated for the HER2 Proto-Oncogene.
P. M. Loewenstein and M. Green (2011)
Genes & Cancer 2, 737-744
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NID2 and HOXA9 Promoter Hypermethylation as Biomarkers for Prevention and Early Detection in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tissues and Saliva.
R. Guerrero-Preston, E. Soudry, J. Acero, M. Orera, L. Moreno-Lopez, G. Macia-Colon, A. Jaffe, M. Berdasco, C. Ili-Gangas, P. Brebi-Mieville, et al. (2011)
Cancer Prevention Research 4, 1061-1072
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How Genetically Engineered Mouse Tumor Models Provide Insights Into Human Cancers.
K. Politi and W. Pao (2011)
J. Clin. Oncol. 29, 2273-2281
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Addicted to Myc--but why?.
B. von Eyss and M. Eilers (2011)
Genes & Dev. 25, 895-897
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Abnormalities of the TITF-1 Lineage-Specific Oncogene in NSCLC: Implications in Lung Cancer Pathogenesis and Prognosis.
X. Tang, H. Kadara, C. Behrens, D. D. Liu, Y. Xiao, D. Rice, A. F. Gazdar, J. Fujimoto, C. Moran, M. Varella-Garcia, et al. (2011)
Clin. Cancer Res. 17, 2434-2443
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Genotypic and Histological Evolution of Lung Cancers Acquiring Resistance to EGFR Inhibitors.
L. V. Sequist, B. A. Waltman, D. Dias-Santagata, S. Digumarthy, A. B. Turke, P. Fidias, K. Bergethon, A. T. Shaw, S. Gettinger, A. K. Cosper, et al. (2011)
Science Translational Medicine 3, 75ra26
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Ron Kinase Transphosphorylation Sustains MET Oncogene Addiction.
S. Benvenuti, L. Lazzari, A. Arnesano, G. Li Chiavi, A. Gentile, and P. M. Comoglio (2011)
Cancer Res. 71, 1945-1955
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Breaking Evolution's Chains: The Prospect of Deliberate Genetic Modification in Humans.
R. Powell and A. Buchanan (2011)
J Med Philos 36, 6-27
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KRIBB11 Inhibits HSP70 Synthesis through Inhibition of Heat Shock Factor 1 Function by Impairing the Recruitment of Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b to the hsp70 Promoter.
Y. J. Yoon, J. A. Kim, K. D. Shin, D.-S. Shin, Y. M. Han, Y. J. Lee, J. S. Lee, B.-M. Kwon, and D. C. Han (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 1737-1747
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Role of MSK1 in the Malignant Phenotype of Ras-transformed Mouse Fibroblasts.
B. Perez-Cadahia, B. Drobic, P. S. Espino, S. He, S. Mandal, S. Healy, and J. R. Davie (2011)
J. Biol. Chem. 286, 42-49
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The Biological Framework: Translational Research from Bench to Clinic.
Y. Yarden (2011)
Oncologist 16, 23-29
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Clinical Implications of the Cancer Genome.
L. E. MacConaill and L. A. Garraway (2010)
J. Clin. Oncol. 28, 5219-5228
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2010 JBS/SBS Academic Excellence Awards.
T. Luo, N. Ross, A. Stern, S. Schreiber, and G. Krishnamoorthy (2010)
J Biomol Screen 15, 1289-1291
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From Hen House to Bedside: Tracing Hanafusa's Legacy from Avian Leukemia Viruses to SRC to ABL and Beyond.
M. G. Kharas and G. Q. Daley (2010)
Genes & Cancer 1, 1164-1169
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Quantitative Proteomics Discloses MET Expression in Mitochondria as a Direct Target of MET Kinase Inhibitor in Cancer Cells.
T. Guo, Y. Zhu, C. S. Gan, S. S. Lee, J. Zhu, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Christensen, S. Huang, O. L. Kon, et al. (2010)
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 9, 2629-2641
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The Biological Framework: Translational Research from Bench to Clinic.
Y. Yarden (2010)
Oncologist 15, 1-7
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p27Kip1 Mediates Addiction of Ovarian Cancer Cells to MYCC (c-MYC) and Their Dependence on MYC Paralogs.
T. Prathapam, A. Aleshin, Y. Guan, J. W. Gray, and G. S. Martin (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 32529-32538
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A mathematical framework to determine the temporal sequence of somatic genetic events in cancer.
C. S.-O. Attolini, Y.-K. Cheng, R. Beroukhim, G. Getz, O. Abdel-Wahab, R. L. Levine, I. K. Mellinghoff, and F. Michor (2010)
PNAS 107, 17604-17609
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MET and KRAS Gene Amplification Mediates Acquired Resistance to MET Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.
V. Cepero, J. R. Sierra, S. Corso, E. Ghiso, L. Casorzo, T. Perera, P. M. Comoglio, and S. Giordano (2010)
Cancer Res. 70, 7580-7590
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Akt-RSK-S6 Kinase Signaling Networks Activated by Oncogenic Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.
A. Moritz, Y. Li, A. Guo, J. Villen, Y. Wang, J. MacNeill, J. Kornhauser, K. Sprott, J. Zhou, A. Possemato, et al. (2010)
Science Signaling 3, ra64
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Pathway-Based Identification of Biomarkers for Targeted Therapeutics: Personalized Oncology with PI3K Pathway Inhibitors.
J. N. Andersen, S. Sathyanarayanan, A. Di Bacco, A. Chi, T. Zhang, A. H. Chen, B. Dolinski, M. Kraus, B. Roberts, W. Arthur, et al. (2010)
Science Translational Medicine 2, 43ra55
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Sphingosine Kinase 1 Induces Tolerance to Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 and Prevents Formation of a Migratory Phenotype in Response to Sphingosine 1-Phosphate in Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Cells.
J. S. Long, J. Edwards, C. Watson, S. Tovey, K. M. Mair, R. Schiff, V. Natarajan, N. J. Pyne, and S. Pyne (2010)
Mol. Cell. Biol. 30, 3827-3841
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Structural Basis for Conformational Dynamics of GTP-bound Ras Protein.
F. Shima, Y. Ijiri, S. Muraoka, J. Liao, M. Ye, M. Araki, K. Matsumoto, N. Yamamoto, T. Sugimoto, Y. Yoshikawa, et al. (2010)
J. Biol. Chem. 285, 22696-22705
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The interaction between Myc and Miz1 is required to antagonize TGF{beta}-dependent autocrine signaling during lymphoma formation and maintenance.
J. van Riggelen, J. Muller, T. Otto, V. Beuger, A. Yetil, P. S. Choi, C. Kosan, T. Moroy, D. W. Felsher, and M. Eilers (2010)
Genes & Dev. 24, 1281-1294
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MYC Inactivation Elicits Oncogene Addiction through Both Tumor Cell-Intrinsic and Host-Dependent Mechanisms.
D. W. Felsher (2010)
Genes & Cancer 1, 597-604
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Generation of iPSCs from cultured human malignant cells.
J. E. Carette, J. Pruszak, M. Varadarajan, V. A. Blomen, S. Gokhale, F. D. Camargo, M. Wernig, R. Jaenisch, and T. R. Brummelkamp (2010)
Blood 115, 4039-4042
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Conditional TPM3-ALK and NPM-ALK transgenic mice develop reversible ALK-positive early B-cell lymphoma/leukemia.
S. Giuriato, M. Foisseau, E. Dejean, D. W. Felsher, T. Al Saati, C. Demur, A. Ragab, A. Kruczynski, C. Schiff, G. Delsol, et al. (2010)
Blood 115, 4061-4070
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Review: Castration-resistant prostate cancer: new science and therapeutic prospects.
J. Bellmunt and W. K. Oh (2010)
Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology 2, 189-207
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Refocusing the War on Cancer: The Critical Role of Personalized Treatment.
A. Potti, R. L. Schilsky, and J. R. Nevins (2010)
Science Translational Medicine 2, 28cm13
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Oncogenic Signal Transduction Networks in Cancer: Relevance to Cancer Therapy.
E. Bublil, C. R. Pradeep, and Y. Yarden (2010)
Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. Educ. Book 2010, 39-42
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Mitochondrial p32 Protein Is a Critical Regulator of Tumor Metabolism via Maintenance of Oxidative Phosphorylation.
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Stat5 is indispensable for the maintenance of bcr/abl-positive leukaemia.
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Serious Hematologic Complications Following Erlotinib Treatment.
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Clinical Definition of Acquired Resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
D. Jackman, W. Pao, G. J. Riely, J. A. Engelman, M. G. Kris, P. A. Janne, T. Lynch, B. E. Johnson, and V. A. Miller (2010)
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