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Science 298 (5594): 763-764

Copyright © 2002 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Life's Complexity Pyramid

Zoltán N. Oltvai and Albert-László Barabási

How are the myriad components inside the cell connected together, enabling the cell to carry out its specific functions? In their Perspective, Oltvai and Barabási discuss two new studies (Lee et al., Milo et al.) that investigate both biological networks of intracellular components and nonbiological networks such as the World Wide Web. They explain that all networks seem to be organized according to the same distinct principles.

Z. N. Oltvai is in the Department of Pathology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. E-mail: zno008{at} A.-L. Barabási is in the Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA. E-mail: alb{at}

Highly resolved early Eocene food webs show development of modern trophic structure after the end-Cretaceous extinction.
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Proc R Soc B 281, 20133280
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Evolutionarily Conserved Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A/B Proteins Functionally Interact with Human and Drosophila TAR DNA-binding Protein 43 (TDP-43).
M. Romano, E. Buratti, G. Romano, R. Klima, L. Del Bel Belluz, C. Stuani, F. Baralle, and F. Feiguin (2014)
J. Biol. Chem. 289, 7121-7130
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The Worm Turns: Trematodes Steering the Course of Co-infections.
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Brit J Philos Sci 63, 649-671
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PNAS 108, 17243-17244
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Molecular and structural antioxidant defenses against oxidative stress in animals.
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Lipid transport function is the main target of oral oleoylethanolamide to reduce adiposity in high-fat-fed mice.
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J. Lipid Res. 52, 1373-1382
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Life's demons: information and order in biology: What subcellular machines gather and process the information necessary to sustain life?.
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Identification of Putative Stage-Specific Grapevine Berry Biomarkers and Omics Data Integration into Networks.
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Plant Physiology 154, 1439-1459
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New approaches to the understanding of complex chronic lung diseases.
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Respiratory Diseases in Infants and Children 345-360
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Systemic risk: the dynamics of model banking systems.
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Brief Bioinform 10, 392-407
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Brief Bioinform 9, 317-325
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GraphWeb: mining heterogeneous biological networks for gene modules with functional significance.
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Nucleic Acids Res. 36, W452-W459
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J. Biol. Chem. 283, 10264-10275
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Innovative Computational Methods for Transcriptomic Data Analysis: A Case Study in the Use of FPT for Practical Algorithm Design and Implementation.
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The Computer Journal 51, 26-38
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PNAS 104, 15224-15229
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The complex structure of hunter-gatherer social networks.
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Proc R Soc B 274, 2195-2203
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Approaches for Extracting Practical Information from Gene Co-expression Networks in Plant Biology.
K. Aoki, Y. Ogata, and D. Shibata (2007)
Plant Cell Physiol. 48, 381-390
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Observing local and global properties of metabolic pathways: 'load points' and 'choke points' in the metabolic networks.
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Bioinformatics 22, 1767-1774
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Adaptive functional differentiation of dendritic cells: integrating the network of extra- and intracellular signals.
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Blood 107, 4763-4769
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N. Pearce and F. Merletti (2006)
Int. J. Epidemiol. 35, 515-519
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Target hub proteins serve as master regulators of development in yeast.
A. R. Borneman, J. A. Leigh-Bell, H. Yu, P. Bertone, M. Gerstein, and M. Snyder (2006)
Genes & Dev. 20, 435-448
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Computational inference and experimental validation of the nitrogen assimilation regulatory network in cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH 8102.
Z. Su, F. Mao, P. Dam, H. Wu, V. Olman, I. T. Paulsen, B. Palenik, and Y. Xu (2006)
Nucleic Acids Res. 34, 1050-1065
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From The Cover: A simple physical model for scaling in protein-protein interaction networks.
E. J. Deeds, O. Ashenberg, and E. I. Shakhnovich (2006)
PNAS 103, 311-316
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Integrating time-course microarray gene expression profiles with cytotoxicity for identification of biomarkers in primary rat hepatocytes exposed to cadmium.
Y. Tan, L. Shi, S. M. Hussain, J. Xu, W. Tong, J. M. Frazier, and C. Wang (2006)
Bioinformatics 22, 77-87
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The global transcriptional regulatory network for metabolism in Escherichia coli exhibits few dominant functional states.
C. L. Barrett, C. D. Herring, J. L. Reed, and B. O. Palsson (2005)
PNAS 102, 19103-19108
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GMD@CSB.DB: the Golm Metabolome Database.
J. Kopka, N. Schauer, S. Krueger, C. Birkemeyer, B. Usadel, E. Bergmuller, P. Dormann, W. Weckwerth, Y. Gibon, M. Stitt, et al. (2005)
Bioinformatics 21, 1635-1638
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Universality and flexibility in gene expression from bacteria to human.
H. R. Ueda, S. Hayashi, S. Matsuyama, T. Yomo, S. Hashimoto, S. A. Kay, J. B. Hogenesch, and M. Iino (2004)
PNAS 101, 3765-3769
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Functional modules by relating protein interaction networks and gene expression.
S. Tornow and H. W. Mewes (2003)
Nucleic Acids Res. 31, 6283-6289
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Incorporating Basic Nutrition Science into Health Interventions for Cancer Prevention.
J. A. Milner (2003)
J. Nutr. 133, 3820S-3826
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Evolution of the yeast protein interaction network.
H. Qin, H. H. S. Lu, W. B. Wu, and W.-H. Li (2003)
PNAS 100, 12820-12824
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Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression in the Kidneys of New- and Post-Onset Diabetic NOD Mice.
K. H.S. Wilson, S. E. Eckenrode, Q.-Z. Li, Q.-G. Ruan, P. Yang, J.-D. Shi, A. Davoodi-Semiromi, R. A. McIndoe, B. P. Croker, and J.-X. She (2003)
Diabetes 52, 2151-2159
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Revisiting the codon adaptation index from a whole-genome perspective: analyzing the relationship between gene expression and codon occurrence in yeast using a variety of models.
R. Jansen, H. J. Bussemaker, and M. Gerstein (2003)
Nucleic Acids Res. 31, 2242-2251
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Architectures of Biological Complexity.
J. W. Valentine (2003)
Integr. Comp. Biol. 43, 99-103
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Design then mutate.
J. Hasty (2002)
PNAS 99, 16516-16518
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