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Science 299 (5606): 523-524

Copyright © 2003 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

The Bills of Qucks and Duails

Paul Trainor

The remarkable evolutionary success of vertebrates has been attributed to their craniofacial diversity, which is exemplified by the wide variety of beak morphologies among bird species. In his Perspective, Trainor discusses new insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of beak diversity revealed by elegant experiments involving neural crest cell transplants between quail and duck embryos (Schneider and Helms).

The author is at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA. E-mail: pat{at}

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H. N Koopman and Z. P Zahorodny (2008)
Proc R Soc B 275, 2327-2334
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The Effects of Different Bill-Trimming Methods on the Well-Being of Pekin Ducks.
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Graded potential of neural crest to form cornea, sensory neurons and cartilage along the rostrocaudal axis.
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Development 131, 1979-1991
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