Note to users. If you're seeing this message, it means that your browser cannot find this page's style/presentation instructions -- or possibly that you are using a browser that does not support current Web standards. Find out more about why this message is appearing, and what you can do to make your experience of our site the best it can be.


Logo for

Science 299 (5614): 1853-1854

Copyright © 2003 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Relieving DELLA Restraint

Nicholas P. Harberd

Phytohormones such as gibberellins are known to promote plant growth, but it is unclear how they do this. In a Perspective, Harberd discusses new work (Sasaki et al.) that reveals the biochemical basis of the relief-of-restraint model of plant growth regulation. A gibberellin signal promotes proteasomal degradation of DELLA proteins, which normally restrain plant growth.

The author is at the John Innes Centre, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UH, UK. E-mail: nicholas.harberd{at}

DELLA proteins regulate arbuscule formation in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.
D. S. Floss, J. G. Levy, V. Levesque-Tremblay, N. Pumplin, and M. J. Harrison (2013)
PNAS 110, E5025-E5034
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gibberellin signaling in plants.
J.-M. Daviere and P. Achard (2013)
Development 140, 1147-1151
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Fruit Growth in Arabidopsis Occurs via DELLA-Dependent and DELLA-Independent Gibberellin Responses.
S. Fuentes, K. Ljung, K. Sorefan, E. Alvey, N. P. Harberd, and L. Ostergaard (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 3982-3996
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gibberellin Regulates the Arabidopsis Floral Transition through miR156-Targeted SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE Transcription Factors.
S. Yu, V. C. Galvao, Y.-C. Zhang, D. Horrer, T.-Q. Zhang, Y.-H. Hao, Y.-Q. Feng, S. Wang, M. Schmid, and J.-W. Wang (2012)
PLANT CELL 24, 3320-3332
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Dominant and Pleiotropic Effects of a GAI Gene in Wheat Results from a Lack of Interaction between DELLA and GID1.
J. Wu, X. Kong, J. Wan, X. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Guo, R. Zhou, G. Zhao, R. Jing, X. Fu, et al. (2011)
Plant Physiology 157, 2120-2130
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
A DELLA in Disguise: SPATULA Restrains the Growth of the Developing Arabidopsis Seedling.
E.-M. Josse, Y. Gan, J. Bou-Torrent, K. L. Stewart, A. D. Gilday, C. E. Jeffree, F. E. Vaistij, J. F. Martinez-Garcia, F. Nagy, I. A. Graham, et al. (2011)
PLANT CELL 23, 1337-1351
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Distinct and Dynamic Auxin Activities During Reproductive Development.
E. Sundberg and L. Ostergaard (2009)
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 1, a001628
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Releasing the brakes of plant growth: how GAs shutdown DELLA proteins.
P. Achard and P. Genschik (2009)
J. Exp. Bot. 60, 1085-1092
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Cold-Inducible CBF1 Factor-Dependent Signaling Pathway Modulates the Accumulation of the Growth-Repressing DELLA Proteins via Its Effect on Gibberellin Metabolism.
P. Achard, F. Gong, S. Cheminant, M. Alioua, P. Hedden, and P. Genschik (2008)
PLANT CELL 20, 2117-2129
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Global Identification of DELLA Target Genes during Arabidopsis Flower Development.
X. Hou, W.-W. Hu, L. Shen, L. Y. C. Lee, Z. Tao, J.-H. Han, and H. Yu (2008)
Plant Physiology 147, 1126-1142
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gibberellin Homeostasis in Tobacco is Regulated by Gibberellin Metabolism Genes with Different Gibberellin Sensitivity.
L. Gallego-Giraldo, S. Ubeda-Tomas, C. Gisbert, J. L. Garcia-Martinez, T. Moritz, and I. Lopez-Diaz (2008)
Plant Cell Physiol. 49, 679-690
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Genetic and Molecular Regulation by DELLA Proteins of Trichome Development in Arabidopsis.
Y. Gan, H. Yu, J. Peng, and P. Broun (2007)
Plant Physiology 145, 1031-1042
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The plant stress hormone ethylene controls floral transition via DELLA-dependent regulation of floral meristem-identity genes.
P. Achard, M. Baghour, A. Chapple, P. Hedden, D. Van Der Straeten, P. Genschik, T. Moritz, and N. P. Harberd (2007)
PNAS 104, 6484-6489
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
DELLAs Contribute to Plant Photomorphogenesis.
P. Achard, L. Liao, C. Jiang, T. Desnos, J. Bartlett, X. Fu, and N. P. Harberd (2007)
Plant Physiology 143, 1163-1172
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gibberellin Mobilizes Distinct DELLA-Dependent Transcriptomes to Regulate Seed Germination and Floral Development in Arabidopsis.
D. Cao, H. Cheng, W. Wu, H. M. Soo, and J. Peng (2006)
Plant Physiology 142, 509-525
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Integration of Plant Responses to Environmentally Activated Phytohormonal Signals.
P. Achard, H. Cheng, L. De Grauwe, J. Decat, H. Schoutteten, T. Moritz, D. Van Der Straeten, J. Peng, and N. P. Harberd (2006)
Science 311, 91-94
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
New Perspectives in Flooding Research: the Use of Shade Avoidance and Arabidopsis thaliana.
Ann. Bot. 96, 533-540
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Suppression of Tiller Bud Activity in Tillering Dwarf Mutants of Rice.
S. Ishikawa, M. Maekawa, T. Arite, K. Onishi, I. Takamure, and J. Kyozuka (2005)
Plant Cell Physiol. 46, 79-86
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interactions between Ethylene and Gibberellins in Phytochrome-Mediated Shade Avoidance Responses in Tobacco.
R. Pierik, M. L.C. Cuppens, L. A.C.J. Voesenek, and E. J.W. Visser (2004)
Plant Physiology 136, 2928-2936
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Modulation of floral development by a gibberellin-regulated microRNA.
P. Achard, A. Herr, D. C. Baulcombe, and N. P. Harberd (2004)
Development 131, 3357-3365
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Arabidopsis Mutant sleepy1gar2-1 Protein Promotes Plant Growth by Increasing the Affinity of the SCFSLY1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase for DELLA Protein Substrates.
X. Fu, D. E. Richards, B. Fleck, D. Xie, N. Burton, and N. P. Harberd (2004)
PLANT CELL 16, 1406-1418
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Plant Hormone Binding Sites.
R. NAPIER (2004)
Ann. Bot. 93, 227-233
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Gibberellin regulates Arabidopsis floral development via suppression of DELLA protein function.
H. Cheng, L. Qin, S. Lee, X. Fu, D. E. Richards, D. Cao, D. Luo, N. P. Harberd, and J. Peng (2004)
Development 131, 1055-1064
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Ethylene Regulates Arabidopsis Development via the Modulation of DELLA Protein Growth Repressor Function.
P. Achard, W. H. Vriezen, D. Van Der Straeten, and N. P. Harberd (2003)
PLANT CELL 15, 2816-2825
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

To Advertise     Find Products

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882