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Science 302 (5645): 575-578

Copyright © 2003 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

How Legumes Select Their Sweet Talking Symbionts

Julie Cullimore and Jean Dénarié

Legumes form a symbiotic relationship with rhizobial bacteria, which live in root nodules and fix nitrogen to form ammonia. A key event in the initiation of this symbiotic relationship is the release of Nod factor signals by bacteria. In his Perspective, Cullimore and Dénarié discuss new work published here (Limpens et al.) and elsewhere that identifies the plant receptors recognizing Nod factors.

The authors are at the Laboratoire des Interactions Plantes-Microorganismes, CNRS-INRA, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex, France. E-mail: denarie{at}

Cell Biology of Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis.
S. K. Davy, D. Allemand, and V. M. Weis (2012)
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 76, 229-261
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Corals Form Characteristic Associations with Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria.
K. A. Lema, B. L. Willis, and D. G. Bourne (2012)
Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 78, 3136-3144
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Legumes Symbioses: Absence of Nod Genes in Photosynthetic Bradyrhizobia.
E. Giraud, L. Moulin, D. Vallenet, V. Barbe, E. Cytryn, J.-C. Avarre, M. Jaubert, D. Simon, F. Cartieaux, Y. Prin, et al. (2007)
Science 316, 1307-1312
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Medicago truncatula Lysine Motif-Receptor-Like Kinase Gene Family Includes NFP and New Nodule-Expressed Genes.
J.-F. Arrighi, A. Barre, B. Ben Amor, A. Bersoult, L. C. Soriano, R. Mirabella, F. de Carvalho-Niebel, E.-P. Journet, M. Gherardi, T. Huguet, et al. (2006)
Plant Physiology 142, 265-279
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Tracing Nonlegume Orthologs of Legume Genes Required for Nodulation and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbioses.
H. Zhu, B. K. Riely, N. J. Burns, and J.-M. Ane (2006)
Genetics 172, 2491-2499
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The DMI1 and DMI2 Early Symbiotic Genes of Medicago truncatula Are Required for a High-Affinity Nodulation Factor-Binding Site Associated to a Particulate Fraction of Roots.
B. V. Hogg, J. V. Cullimore, R. Ranjeva, and J.-J. Bono (2006)
Plant Physiology 140, 365-373
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Overlaps in the Transcriptional Profiles of Medicago truncatula Roots Inoculated with Two Different Glomus Fungi Provide Insights into the Genetic Program Activated during Arbuscular Mycorrhiza.
N. Hohnjec, M. F. Vieweg, A. Puhler, A. Becker, and H. Kuster (2005)
Plant Physiology 137, 1283-1301
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nitrogen-fixing bacterium Burkholderia brasiliensis produces a novel yersiniose A-containing O-polysaccharide.
K. A. Mattos, A. R. Todeschini, N. Heise, C. Jones, J. O. Previato, and L. Mendonca-Previato (2005)
Glycobiology 15, 313-321
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Nod factor-treated Medicago truncatula roots and seeds show an increased number of nodules when inoculated with a limiting population of Sinorhizobium meliloti.
R. E. Macchiavelli and G. Brelles-Marino (2004)
J. Exp. Bot. 55, 2635-2640
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Pharmacological Evidence That Multiple Phospholipid Signaling Pathways Link Rhizobium Nodulation Factor Perception in Medicago truncatula Root Hairs to Intracellular Responses, Including Ca2+ Spiking and Specific ENOD Gene Expression.
D. Charron, J.-L. Pingret, M. Chabaud, E.-P. Journet, and D. G. Barker (2004)
Plant Physiology 136, 3582-3593
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LIN, a Medicago truncatula Gene Required for Nodule Differentiation and Persistence of Rhizobial Infections.
K. T. Kuppusamy, G. Endre, R. Prabhu, R. V. Penmetsa, H. Veereshlingam, D. R. Cook, R. Dickstein, and K. A. VandenBosch (2004)
Plant Physiology 136, 3682-3691
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Expression Profiling in Medicago truncatula Identifies More Than 750 Genes Differentially Expressed during Nodulation, Including Many Potential Regulators of the Symbiotic Program.
F. El Yahyaoui, H. Kuster, B. Ben Amor, N. Hohnjec, A. Puhler, A. Becker, J. Gouzy, T. Vernie, C. Gough, A. Niebel, et al. (2004)
Plant Physiology 136, 3159-3176
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »

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