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Science 303 (5663): 1481-1482

Copyright © 2004 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

After the Toll Rush

Luke A. J. O'Neill

The family of Toll-like receptors have garnered much interest because of their ability to detect bacterial and viral molecules and to activate the innate immune response. In his Perspective, O'Neill introduces a trio of papers (Zhang et al., Heil et al., and Diebold et al.) that provide new information about how Toll-like receptors activate innate immunity.

The author is in the Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. E-mail: laoneill{at}

Recognition of pathogen-associated nucleic acids by endosomal nucleic acid-sensing toll-like receptors.
X. He, H. Jia, Z. Jing, and D. Liu (2013)
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin 45, 241-258
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Free HTLV-1 induces TLR7-dependent innate immune response and TRAIL relocalization in killer plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
R. Colisson, L. Barblu, C. Gras, F. Raynaud, R. Hadj-Slimane, C. Pique, O. Hermine, Y. Lepelletier, and J.-P. Herbeuval (2010)
Blood 115, 2177-2185
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
HIV turns plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) into TRAIL-expressing killer pDC and down-regulates HIV coreceptors by Toll-like receptor 7-induced IFN-{alpha}.
A. W. Hardy, D. R. Graham, G. M. Shearer, and J.-P. Herbeuval (2007)
PNAS 104, 17453-17458
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Infectious RNA Isolated from the Spinal Cords of Mice Chronically Infected with Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus.
J. E. Libbey, I. Tsunoda, J. L. Whitton, and R. S. Fujinami (2007)
J. Virol. 81, 3009-3011
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
The Functional Effects of Physical Interactions among Toll-like Receptors 7, 8, and 9.
J. Wang, Y. Shao, T. A. Bennett, R. A. Shankar, P. D. Wightman, and L. G. Reddy (2006)
J. Biol. Chem. 281, 37427-37434
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
TLR agonists promote ERK-mediated preferential IL-10 production of regulatory dendritic cells (diffDCs), leading to NK-cell activation.
C. Qian, X. Jiang, H. An, Y. Yu, Z. Guo, S. Liu, H. Xu, and X. Cao (2006)
Blood 108, 2307-2315
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Interferon and Its Inducers--A Never-Ending Story: "Old" and "New" Data in a New Perspective.
E. De Clercq (2006)
The Journal of Infectious Disease 194, S19-S26
   Full Text »    PDF »
Antibodies against human Toll-like receptors (TLRs): TLR distribution and localization in human dendritic cells.
T. Seya, K. Funami, M. Taniguchi, and M. Matsumoto (2005)
Innate Immunity 11, 369-374
   Abstract »    PDF »
Selective Recognition of Synthetic Lysine and meso-Diaminopimelic Acid-type Peptidoglycan Fragments by Human Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins I{alpha} and S.
S. Kumar, A. Roychowdhury, B. Ember, Q. Wang, R. Guan, R. A. Mariuzza, and G.-J. Boons (2005)
J. Biol. Chem. 280, 37005-37012
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Peptide-mediated Interference of TIR Domain Dimerization in MyD88 Inhibits Interleukin-1-dependent Activation of NF-{kappa}B.
M. Loiarro, C. Sette, G. Gallo, A. Ciacci, N. Fanto, D. Mastroianni, P. Carminati, and V. Ruggiero (2005)
J. Biol. Chem. 280, 15809-15814
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Regulating Intracellular Antiviral Defense and Permissiveness to Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication through a Cellular RNA Helicase, RIG-I.
R. Sumpter Jr., Y.-M. Loo, E. Foy, K. Li, M. Yoneyama, T. Fujita, S. M. Lemon, and M. Gale Jr. (2005)
J. Virol. 79, 2689-2699
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Unraveling the Molecular Details Involved in the Intimate Link between the Immune and Neuroendocrine Systems.
N. P. Turrin and S. Rivest (2004)
Experimental Biology and Medicine 229, 996-1006
   Abstract »    Full Text »    PDF »
Newly Discovered Molecule Important in the Pathogenesis of UTIs.
Journal Watch (General) 2004, 3
   Full Text »

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