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Science 312 (5775): 861-864

Copyright © 2006 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Regulating Energy Balance: The Substrate Strikes Back

Jeffrey S. Flier

Hormones and dietary nutrients control appetite and metabolism by acting on the brain, where the signals they elicit promote hunger or satiety. Neurons in the hypothalamus integrate these signals to regulate energy balance.

The author is in the Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. E-mail: jflier{at}

Obesity-related elevations in plasma leucine are associated with alterations in enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism.
P. She, C. Van Horn, T. Reid, S. M. Hutson, R. N. Cooney, and C. J. Lynch (2007)
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293, E1552-E1563
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