Editors' ChoiceMEDICINE

Papers of note in Science Translational Medicine 9 (408)

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Sci. Signal.  26 Sep 2017:
Vol. 10, Issue 498, eaaq0150
DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.aaq0150

This week’s articles describe new therapeutic strategies for cancer, lung inflammation, and graft-versus-host disease.

CANCER

A double virus’s double attack on cancer

Brown et al. found that an oncolytic poliovirus/rhinovirus chimera elicits antitumor immunity by damaging neoplastic cells and activating type I IFN responses in antigen-presenting cells.

LUNG INJURY

Starting an intercellular conversation

Neudecker et al. showed that microvesicular transfer of the microRNA miR-223 from neutrophils to alveolar epithelial cells, and the subsequent reduction in poly(adenosine diphosphate–ribose) polymerase–1 (PARP-1) abundance in the alveoli, reduces lung inflammation in a mouse model of ventilator- or bacterial-induced lung injury.

GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE

Tackling the T cell quandry in GVHD

Tkachev et al. report that the combined blockade of OX40L and mTOR may control effector T cell (Teff) activation but preserve regulatory T cell (Treg) function after tissue transplantation to prevent graft-versus-host disease.

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