Research ArticleCancer Immunology

Dual enhancement of T and NK cell function by pulsatile inhibition of SHIP1 improves antitumor immunity and survival

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Sci. Signal.  10 Oct 2017:
Vol. 10, Issue 500, eaam5353
DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.aam5353
  • Fig. 1 NK cells and CD8 T cells exhibit enhanced activation after short-term in vivo SHIPi.

    (A and B) NK cells isolated from 2-day SHIPi- or vehicle-treated mice were stimulated by incubation on uncoated plates; on plates coated with antibodies against NK1.1, NKp46, or NKG2D; or on uncoated plates containing PMA and ionomycin (PMA). Representative flow plots (A) and box-and-whisker plots (B) show the frequency of NK cell production of IFN-γ determined by intracellular flow cytometry. (C and D) Frequency (C) and abundance (D) of CD69 among splenic, CD8+ T cells from 2-day SHIPi- or vehicle-treated mice. (E) T cells isolated from 2-day SHIPi- or vehicle-treated mice were stimulated by overnight incubation on plates coated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. Anti-CD107a (LAMP-1) phycoerythrin (PE) antibody was added for the final 5 hours of incubation. Degranulation of CD8+ T cells was determined by analysis of CD107a expression by flow cytometry. NK cells are defined as NK1.1+CD3ε and CD8+ T cells as NK1.1CD3ε+CD8+CD4 or NK1.1TCRβ+CD8+CD4. Graphs are representative of at least two independent experiments with at least four SHIPi- and vehicle-treated mice per group (A to B), or pooled data from two independent experiments are shown (C to E). In (B), Unstim: n = 4, P = 0.0962 by unpaired t test with Welch’s correction; NK1.1: n = 4, P = 0.0038; NKG2D: n = 4, P = 0.0450; NKp46: n = 4, P = 0.0144; and PMA: P = 0.2945, each by two-tailed Student’s t tests. In (C), n = 8, P = 0.0153 by unpaired t test with Welch’s correction. In (D) and (E), n = 8, P = 0.0009, and n = 9, P = 0.0083, each by two-tailed Student’s t tests.

  • Fig. 2 SHIPi-treated mice have increased tumor rejection that requires NK cells.

    (A to D) Green fluorescent protein (GFP)–expressing RMA-Rae1 cells (5 × 105) were injected into C57BL/6 (A) or RAG1−/− (B) mice, or C57BL/6 mice that had either an antibody-mediated depleted (ΔNK) or intact (Iso) NK cell compartment (C and D). Mice were treated with either SHIPi or vehicle for 2 days, and tumor burden was determined by flow cytometric analysis of peritoneal cavity contents recovered by peritoneal lavage on the third day. Graphs represent pooled data from two independent experiments (n ≥ 4 mice each condition in each experiment). (A) P = 0.0433 by Mann-Whitney U test; (B) P = 0.0007 by Mann-Whitney U test; (C) P = 0.0153 by unpaired t test with Welch’s correction; (D) P = 0.9188 by Mann-Whitney U test.

  • Fig. 3 SHIPi is a novel chemoimmunotherapeutic.

    (A) Flow cytometric assessment of absolute number of splenic NK cells isolated from mice the day after two consecutive days of treatment with SHIPi or vehicle. *P < 0.05 by two-tailed Student’s t test. (B) Number of peritoneal NK cells recovered by peritoneal lavage from SHIPi- or vehicle-treated and tumor-challenged (5 × 105 RMA-Rae1 cells) C57BL/6 hosts. ***P < 0.001 by two-tailed Student’s t test. (C) Proportion of mature splenic NK cells (CD27CD11b+) among total NK cells isolated from SHIPi- or vehicle-treated, naïve, or tumor-challenged C57BL/6 hosts. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 by two-tailed Student’s t test. (D and E) Representative histograms (D) and box-and-whisker plots (E) of the number and percentage, respectively, of FasL-positive NK cells isolated from tumor-challenged C57BL/6 or RAG1−/− mice, treated with either SHIPi or vehicle. ***P < 0.001 by unpaired t test with Welch’s correction, ****P < 0.0001 by Mann-Whitney U test, compared with respective vehicle condition. A.U., arbitrary units. (F) Percent of FasL-positive T cells recovered by peritoneal lavage of SHIPi- or vehicle-treated, tumor-challenged mice. ****P < 0.0001 by Mann-Whitney U test. (G) Percentage of FasL-positive splenic NK and T cells isolated from SHIPi- or vehicle-treated C57BL/6 mice. *P < 0.05 (P = 0.0192) by unpaired t test with Welch’s correction (T cells, P = 0.0659 by Mann-Whitney U test). In (A) to (G), NK cells were detected by NK1.1+CD3ε staining, and data are representative of at least two independent experiments in which n ≥ 4 mice per treatment group. (H) RMA-Rae1 cell viability in vitro after exposure to SHIPi for 24 hours at the indicated doses. Viability is expressed as the frequency at a given concentration relative to solvent only–treated cells. Data are means ± SEM, pooled from three independent experiments, each with six replicate wells per concentration. ****P < 0.0001 by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Dunnett’s multiple comparisons. (I) Box-and-whisker plots assessing apoptosis (annexin V) and caspase 8 activation in RMA cells after culture with SHIPi versus vehicle for 12 hours. Data are pooled from two independent experiments, each done in triplicate. ***P ˂ 0.001 by unpaired t test with Welch’s correction.

  • Fig. 4 SHIPi improves survival among tumor-bearing mice in a T cell– and NK cell–dependent manner.

    (A) Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival in SHIPi- or vehicle-treated C57BL/6 and NSG mice, and in SHIPi-treated TCRα−/− mice, each injected with 5 × 105 RMA-Rae1 cells. Assay and treatment schedule (Tx +) indicated in the schematic. (B) Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival in SHIPi-treated NK cell–depleted C57BL/6 mice (ΔNK; yellow) and SHIPi-treated control C57BL/6 mice (Iso; black) injected with 5 × 105 RMA-Rae1 cells. PK136, NK1.1 antibody; Iso, isotype control antibody. (C) Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival in chronic SHIPi- or vehicle-treated C57BL/6 mice injected with 105 RMA-Rae1 cells. (D) Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival in CD4CreSHIPflox/flox, SHIP+/flox, and SHIPflox/flox mice that were injected with 5 × 105 RMA-Rae1 cells and treated with SHIPi (3AC) or vehicle as indicated. Assay and treatment schedule as shown in (A). (E) Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival in C57BL/6 hosts injected with 1 × 105 RMA-Rae1 cells and treated with SHIPi (3AC; SHIP1 selective inhibitor), Klucel (3AC’s vehicle), K118 or K149 (pan-SHIP1/2 inhibitors), or water (vehicle for K118 and K149). Assay and treatment schedule as shown in (A). (F) Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival in C57BL/6 mice injected with 1 × 105 RMA-Rae1 cells and treated with AS1949490 (SHIP2 selective inhibitor), 3AC and AS1949490, or vehicle control. (G) Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival in naïve C57BL/6 mice that received adoptive transfer of hematolymphoid cells (5 × 106 splenocytes and 5 × 106 BM cells) from either a SHIPi-treated long-term RMA-Rae1–challenged (“Primed”) or naïve C57BL/6 donor before injection with 5 × 105 RMA-Rae1 cells. Data are each pooled from two independent experiments: total n = 20 (A to C), n ≥ 6 (D), n = 10 (E and F), and n = 9 (G) mice in each condition. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, and ****P < 0.0001 by log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test.

  • Fig. 5 SHIPi reduces nonhematopoietic tumor progression.

    (A and B) Viability in CT26 (A) and MC-38 (B) CRC cells after culture with SHIPi for 24 hours at the indicated doses relative to solvent-treated cells. Data are means ± SEM, pooled from three independent experiments, each consisting of six replicate wells per concentration. (C to H) BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice were challenged with subcutaneous injection of CT26 (C, E, and G) or MC-38 (D, F, and H) colon carcinoma cells, respectively, in the right flank and then treated with either SHIPi or vehicle as described in Fig. 4A schematic. Tumor size was monitored over the duration of the experiment (C and D), and tumor weight (E and F) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining (G and H) were performed upon completion and dissection of the tumors. (A and B) n = 18 samples per group; *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 by one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s multiple comparisons. (C to F) Data are from one of two independent experiments; n = 10 mice per condition. ***P < 0.001 and ****P < 0.0001 by unpaired t test with Welch’s correction (C, day 14) or two-tailed Student’s t test (C, days 21 and 28, D, and E).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials for:

    Dual enhancement of T and NK cell function by pulsatile inhibition of SHIP1 improves antitumor immunity and survival

    Matthew Gumbleton, Raki Sudan, Sandra Fernandes, Robert W. Engelman, Christopher M. Russo, John D. Chisholm, William G. Kerr*

    *Corresponding author. Email: kerrw{at}upstate.edu

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. SHIPi increases the surface density of Fas (CD95) detected in RMA cell cultures.
    • Fig. S2. The pan-SHIP1/2 inhibitor K118 is cytotoxic against RMA-Rae1 cells.
    • Fig. S3. Abundance of SHIP1 in RMA-Rae1, MC-38, and CT26 cells.

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    Citation: M. Gumbleton, R. Sudan, S. Fernandes, R. W. Engelman, C. M. Russo, J. D. Chisholm, W. G. Kerr, Dual enhancement of T and NK cell function by pulsatile inhibition of SHIP1 improves antitumor immunity and survival. Sci. Signal. 10, eaam5353 (2017).

    © 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science