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The gas ethylene functions as a hormone in plants. In this review the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana are described. The questions of how the ethylene gas is produced and sensed by the receptor protein, and how the different pathway components function to transduce the signal to the nucleus, will be addressed. We also discuss what is known about the regulation of these processes by other growth regulators and how they contribute to the generation of complex ethylene-mediated responses.